Project Documentation

In here, you will find documents of the official documentation for the SIGNALS project. They are available as PDF for which to read you will need the Adobe Reader.


SIGNALS bookmarks for self-printing

Thumbnail of the bookmarks

 

 

Reports

National Project Description

Formation of the National Team/s

The German research team is led by the Institute for Psychomotor Education at the University of Cologne and comprises the Research Institute for Open Space and Playroom Design (the Forschungsstelle für Frei- und Spielraumplanung or FFS), the Caritas Olpe and the Aufwind children’s day care centre at Saßmicke.

The team aims to develop and restructure the rooms and facilities of the Aufwind pre-school children’s day care centre at Saßmicke (class rooms as well as leisure areas and playgrounds) in close coordination with all stakeholders (staff, parents, children, trustees /providers, academics and architects). It is also planned to implement a culture of participation in the day care centre by experimenting with participatory methods and by enabling all stakeholders to experience the benefits of a joint effort.

The University will have the following tasks:

  • organization and coordination of the German research team,
  • academic analysis of the participation processes involving staff, parents and children,
  • provision of technical advice, coaching and training of the day care centre’s teaching staff,
  • organization and management of the participatory processes involving staff, parents, children and host organizations (management of joint workshops and other activities),
  • development and management of a project-oriented curriculum to implement participation processes under special consideration of the importance of playground design.
Formation der nationalen Teams

Unter Federführung des Lehrstuhls für Bewegungserziehung der Universität zu Köln arbeiten im deutschen Forscherteam die Forschungsstelle für Frei- und Spielraumplanung (FFS, die Caritas Olpe und die Aufwind Kindertagesstätte Saßmicke eng zusammen.

Ziel des Teams ist es, die Bildungs-, Spiel- und Lernräume der Aufwind-Kita Saßmicke gemeinsam mit allen Beteiligten (frühpädagogische Fachkräften, Eltern, Kindern, Träger, Wissenschaftlern und Architekten) neu- bzw. umzugestalten. Zum anderen sollen mittels der Erprobung partizipativer Methoden im Rahmen des Spielraumprojekts Partizipations-erfahrungen ermöglicht und eine Partizipationskultur in der Kita implementiert werden.

Aufgaben der Universität:

  • Organisation und Koordination des deutschen Forscherteams,
  • wissenschaftliche Untersuchung der Partizipationsprozesse von Fachkräften, Eltern und Kindern,
  • fachliche Beratung, Coaching und Fortbildung der frühpädagogischen Fachkräfte der Kita,
  • Anleitung und Begleitung der partizipativen Zusammenarbeit von Fachkräften, Eltern, Kindern und Träger im Spielraumprojekt (Durchführung gemeinsamer Workshops und Aktivitäten),
  • die Entwicklung und Umsetzung eines projektorientierten Curriculums zur Implementation von Partizipationsprozessen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Bedeutung der Spielraumgestaltung.
Needs Analysis

This analysis will focus on the “Participation of Children and Parents in Pre-School Children’s Day Care Centres“. A range of issues was defined for the purposes of the German sub-project and researched with the help of documentary analyses, questionnaires and interviews.

As an initial step, the education plans of the German federal states and the quality standards for the participation of young and older children in day care centres (the BMBFSFJ) were analyzed in order to establish the current requirements for the day care system and its staff.

  • What do the states’ education plans have to say about the objective of participation? (conceptual framework? target groups? programme?)
  • What legal/structural framework is in place?
  • What standards in respect of participation should be formulated and implemented?

Following this, the specific requirements of the project’s day care centre (Aufwind at Saßmicke) were established. Parents and members of staff were asked – through a customized questionnaire and structured personal interviews – to provide their views on the principles of participation and on the possibility of practically implementing these principles in the daily routines of the day centre.

Some of the (older) children also had an opportunity of expressing their views in focus group interviews.

Documents:
Analysis Education Plans
Quantitative Analysis
Qualitative Analysis
Conclusion Needs Analysis

Bedarfsanalyse

Gegenstand der Bedarfsanalyse ist der Themenkomplex „Partizipation von Kindern und Eltern in Kindertagesstätten“. Dazu wurden im deutschen Teilvorhaben verschiedene Fragestellungen formuliert und anhand von Dokumentenanalysen, Fragebögen und Interviews untersucht.

In einem ersten Schritt wurden die Bildungspläne der Länder und die Qualitätsstandards für die Beteiligung von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Kindertageseinrichtungen (BMBFSFJ) gesichtet, um aktuelle Anforderungen an das System Kita und die Fachkräfte herauszuarbeiten.

  • Wie wird das Thema Partizipation in den Bildungsplänen thematisiert? (Begründungszusammenhänge? Zielgruppen? Inhalte?)
  • Welche rechtlichen/strukturellen Vorgaben gibt es?
  • Welche Standards sollten im Hinblick auf das Thema Partizipation berücksichtigt und erfüllt werden?

Im zweiten Schritt wurde der konkrete Bedarf der am Projekt beteiligten Kita (Aufwind-Kita Saßmicke) analysiert. Eltern und Fachkräfte wurden mit Hilfe eines selbst entwickelten Fragebogens und leitfadengestützter Interviews zu ihrem subjektiven Verständnis von Beteiligung sowie zur praktischen Umsetzung von Themen und Formen der Partizipation im päd. Alltag der Kita befragt.

Darüber hinaus wurden auch einige (ältere) Kinder in kleinen Gruppeninterviews befragt.

Dokumente:
Fragebogen Eltern
Fragebogen Fachkraft
Analyse Bildungspläne
Quantitative Analyse
Qualitative Analyse
Fazit Bedarfsanalyse

SIGNALS curriculum

The German project aims to develop a practice-oriented curriculum that is designed to enable all stakeholders of the day care centre (staff, parents and children) to implement participation structures within a temporary and thematically limited play area project and, eventually, to implement a comprehensive culture of participation.

This curriculum takes into account the BMFSFJ quality standards of children’s participation. It is also based on the assumption that participation must be seen as more than a school subject or even a cross-subject learning objective of early education but as a target attitude of everybody concerned, including the stakeholders and the members of staff. This is why the teaching-and-learning course units need to reflect the different levels of experience and knowledge. The curricular modules provide all stakeholder groups with opportunities for participation and self-experience, require the teaching staff to act self-responsibly within the given pedagogical context and to reflect upon their actions, stimulate processes of exchange and conciliation both within and between the various stakeholder groups and create coaching and training opportunities for the teaching staff.

The implementation of a participatory educational theory requires the teaching staff to develop high levels of professionalism and, above all, a willingness to share “power“, to initiate and to institutionalize participatory processes. This is why the curriculum has been structured in a team-oriented format for training and structural development that is focused – in even measures – on the participation of parents and children.

Documents:
Curriculum
Examples Play Area Project

SIGNALS-Curriculum

Ziel des deutschen Vorhabens ist die Entwicklung eines handlungsorientierten Curriculums, das es ermöglicht, Beteiligungsstrukturen in der Kita gemeinsam mit allen Beteiligten (Fachkräften, Eltern und Kindern) ausgehend von einem zeitlich und thematisch begrenzten Spielraum-Projekt hin zu einer umfassenden Partizipationskultur zu entwickeln.

Das Curriculum berücksichtigt zum einen die Qualitätsstandards zur Beteiligung von Kindern und Jugendlichen des BMFSFJ. Zum anderen basiert es auf der Annahme, dass Partizipation nicht nur als Bildungsthema oder Querschnittsdimension frühkindlicher Bildung angesehen werden muss, sondern vielmehr eine Haltung (der Beteiligten, insbesondere der Fachkräfte) darstellt. Daher wird in den Lehr-Lern-Einheiten sowohl die Erfahrungsebene als auch die Wissensebene berücksichtigt und reflektiert. Die Curriculumsmodule beinhalten Selbsterfahrungs-und Beteiligungsmöglichkeiten aller Zielgruppen, selbstständiges pädagogisches Handeln der Fachkräfte im Bildungskontext und dessen Reflexion, Austausch- und Einigungsprozesse innerhalb und zwischen den beteiligten Gruppen sowie Coaching und Fortbildung der Fachkräfte.

Die Gestaltung einer partizipativen Bildungspädagogik verlangt vor allem von Fachkräften eine hohe Professionalität und die Bereitschaft, „Macht“ zu teilen und Beteiligungsprozesse zu initiieren und zu institutionalisieren. Das Curriculum ist deshalb als teamorientiertes Fortbildungs- und Organisationsentwicklungsformat konstruiert und thematisiert gleichermaßen die Beteiligung von Kindern und Eltern.

Dokumente:
Curriculum
Praktische Beispiele zu Teilschritten

Internal Evaluation

The internal evaluation of the German project is being performed on three levels:

Level 1, at the start of the project: Interviews of parents and staff members. It was established what the different stakeholders thought about participation in general, what personal experiences with participation they had already made within the context of the day care centre and how they experience the realisation of participatory practices in their day care centre. Customized questionnaires were developed for this purpose, and the researchers conducted structured interviews (qualitative and quantitative analyses).
The children themselves were given a chance of expressing their views about participatory opportunities within the frame of focus group interviews.

Level 2, during the project’s active stage: Documentation of processes and results through protocols, wall newspapers, information posters, photos and films about workshops and other activities.

Level 3, following the completion of the project: Interviews of children, parents and members of staff. These interviews serve to establish the following:

  • how the project developed and what processes and teaching methods had been applied,
  • how the educational and learning opportunities of the children had been influenced by the modified spatial design and by the new structures of participation between parents, children and members of staff, and
  • how opinions about participation had changed, specifically the opinions of the day care centre’s teachers / educators.
Interne Evaluation

Die interne Evaluation des deutschen Projekts findet auf drei Ebenen statt:

1. Ebene – zu Beginn des Projekts: Befragung von Eltern und Fachkräften:
Untersuchung der subjektiven Verständnisse von Partizipation, der persönlichen Erfahrungen mit Partizipation im Kontext der Kindertagesstätte und die konkrete Umsetzung von Partizipation in der Kita anhand von selbst entwickelten Fragebögen und leitfadengestützten Interviews (qualitative und quantitative Untersuchung)
Befragung der Kinder in Gruppeninterviews zu ihren Partizipationsmöglichkeiten in der Kita

2. Ebene – im Projektverlauf: Prozess- und Ergebnisdokumentation der Aktivitäten und Workshops durch Protokolle, Wandzeitungen, Infoplakate, Fotos und Filmsequenzen

3. Ebene – nach Beendigung des Projekts: Befragung von Kindern, Eltern und Fachkräften hinsichtlich:

  • des Projektverlaufs und der angewandten Didaktik und Methodik,
  • der Bildungs- und Lernmöglichkeiten der Kinder durch veränderte Spielräume und Partizipationsstrukturen zwischen Kindern, Eltern und Fachkräften und
  • des Verständnisses von und der Haltung zu Partizipation, insbesondere der Fachkräfte.
Implementation

The German project “A Joint Effort for More Scope of Action“ has been designed as a project of applied “action research”. This concept focuses on specific practical problems in order to enable direct social action. This is why the implementation of the project is closely linked to the target groups of the cooperating day care centre (the Aufwind pre-school children’s centre at Saßmicke). The personal relations between researchers and stakeholders are characterized by symmetrical communication structures.

Following initial interviews and other contacts with members of staff, parents and children, the project has been implemented into the daily routines of the day care centre in closely coordinated, interlinked and occasionally parallel stages:

  1. All stakeholders have been involved in the joint design of the play area spaces.
    Workshops, the different rounds of the planning process and practical action have been conducted with the involvement of parents, teaching staff and representatives of the host organizations, accompanied by playful / psychomotoric activities with the children, in the following stages of the project:
    • Initial survey to establish the current situation
    • Blue-skies-thinking
    • Collection of concrete ideas and suggestions
    • Tendering actual proposals, construction planning
    • Decision-making process
  2. Advisory and supervisory units for team building and conceptual development
  3. Training of teaching staff and teamwork about participation:
    • Definitions and legal foundations
    • Personal experiences, attitudes and opinions of teaching staff
    • Conceptual frameworks and objectives
    • Dealing with power and the loss thereof
    • How to act in the educational environment, implementation
      • The role of the teacher / educator
      • Participation of children and parents
      • The foundations of participation in educational theory
      • Forms and methods of children’s participation
      • Parental participation and involvement
  4. Joint implementation / restructuring of the outdoors playing area in close coordination with all stakeholders
Implementierung

Das deutsche Projekt „Gemeinsam zu mehr Handlungsspielraum“ versteht sich als Handlungs- und Aktionsforschung (action research). Ziel der Aktionsforschung ist es, an konkreten Problemen aus der Praxis anzusetzen und direktes soziales Handeln in der Praxis zu ermöglichen. Die Implementation des Projekts ist daher eng gekoppelt an die Zielgruppen der kooperierenden Kita (Aufwind-Kita Saßmicke), wobei sich die Beziehungen zwischen Forschern und Beteiligten bzw. Betroffenen durch symmetrische Kommunikationsstrukturen auszeichnen.

Nach einer ersten Befragungs- und Untersuchungsphase von Fachkräften, Eltern und Kindern, wird das Projekt durch inhaltlich ineinandergreifende und teilweise parallelverlaufende Phasen in die Kita-Praxis implementiert:

  1. Gemeinsame Spielraumplanung mit allen Beteiligten:
    Workshops, Planungsrunden und handlungsorientierte Aktivitäten mit Eltern, Fachkräften und Trägervertretern sowie spielerische und bewegungsorientierte Aktivitäten mit Kindern zu folgenden Projektschritten:
    • Bestandsaufnahme
    • Fantasiephase
    • Ideensammlung
    • Konkretisierung und Bauplanung
    • Treffen von Entscheidungen
  2. Beratungs- und Supervisionseinheiten zur Team- und Konzeptionsentwicklung
  3. Fortbildung der Fachkräfte und Teamarbeit zum Thema Partizipation:
    • Definitionen und rechtliche Grundlagen
    • Persönliche Erfahrungen, Einstellungen und Haltungen der Fachkräfte
    • Begründungszusammenhänge und Ziele
    • Umgang mit Macht/Machtverlust
    • Päd. Handeln und Umsetzung
      • Rolle der Fachkraft
      • Partizipationsthemen von Kindern und Eltern
      • Didaktische Grundlagen von Partizipation
      • Formen und Methoden zur Beteiligung von Kindern
      • Partizipation von und Zusammenarbeit mit Eltern
    • Gemeinsame Realisierung/Umgestaltung des Außenspielgeländes mit den Beteiligten
Exploitation/Practical Application

Action Research is primarily designed to cause actual changes or to develop solutions for specific problems in specific environments. The results of the German sub-project are therefore of immediate relevance for children day care centres, host organizations, trustees /providers and public officials. The curriculum that was developed and implemented supports pre-school educational institutions in their efforts to develop participatory structures in close coordination with their stakeholders, to train their members of staff accordingly and thereby to improve the quality of the educational offer they are making.

The questionnaire that was developed provides teachers/educators, host organizations, trustees/providers and public officials with ways of establishing the extent to which participatory structures and options have already been integrated into the routines of any given children’s day care centre and may reveal the need for further measures or inquiries.

Several modules of the curriculum have already been tested in master’s degree courses in Pedagogics / Pre-School Education and can be used for the purposes of similar courses at universities and teachers’ academies.

Courses on participation and the practical issue of how to manage participatory playroom design projects (implementation of the curriculum) are provided by the research team at the University of Cologne (on request in cooperation with the FFS), also after the project has been completed. If you have any further questions, please contact J.Schneider@uni-koeln.de.

Nutzung

Die Aktions- und Handlungsforschung (action research) ist primär darauf ausgerichtet, Veränderungen in der Praxis herbeizuführen bzw. Problemlösungen in einem und für ein bestimmtes Handlungsfeld zu entwickeln. In diesem Sinne richten sich die im deutschen Teilprojekt gewonnen Ergebnisse konkret an interessierte Kindertagesstätten, Einrichtungsleitungen, Träger und Referenten. Das erarbeitete und erprobte Curriculum unterstützt frühpädagogische Einrichtungen, partizipative Strukturen gemeinsam mit den Beteiligten zu entwickeln, Fachkräfte fortzubilden und somit zu einer Verbesserung der Bildungsqualität im Praxisfeld der Kindertagesstätten beizutragen.

Der entwickelte Fragebogen gibt Fachkräften, Einrichtungsleitungen, Trägern und Referenten Hinweise, welche Partizipations- und Beteiligungsmöglichkeiten/-strukturen bereits in der päd. Arbeit der jeweiligen Kita implementiert sind und deckt eventuelle Handlungs- oder Diskussionsbedarfe auf.

Darüber hinaus wurden einige inhaltliche Bausteine des Curriculums bereits in der Lehre von Master-Studierenden (Frühe Kindheit/Erziehungswissenschaft) erprobt und können auch für die Ausgestaltung entsprechender Ausbildungs- und Lehrmodule in Studiengängen an Fach- und Hochschulen empfohlen werden.

Fortbildungen zum Thema Partizipation sowie die Begleitung entsprechender partizipativer Spielraumprojekte (Umsetzung des Curriculums) werden vom Forscherteam der Uni Köln (wenn gewünscht, auch in Kooperation mit der Forschungsstelle für Frei und Spielraumplanung) auch nach Projektende auf Anfrage angeboten und durchgeführt. (Anfragen hierzu bitte an J.Schneider@uni-koeln.de)

Dissemination and Sustainability

The project was implemented as a pilot project in a facility that is operated by the local Caritas association at Olpe. The use of cross-facility working groups (provided for by the curriculum) and the internal networking structures of the Caritas association justify the expectation that “copycat” or “bandwagon” effects as well as an overall reinforced trend towards participatory educational strategies will occur across the Caritas community of institutions and facilities.

The pilot project has also featured in academic journals and publications. Its concepts and results were presented and discussed at several academic congresses.

The master’s degrees course on Early Childhood Education at the University of Cologne (in the winter semester of 2014/15) featured – for the first time – a seminar on participation in pre-school children’s day care centres (“How to Design Educational Processes in a Participatory and Dynamic Fashion“). It is planned to repeat this seminar and to schedule similar events in the near future.

Verbreitung und Nachhaltigkeit

Die Umsetzung des Projektvorhabens findet als Pilotprojekt in einer Einrichtung des Caritasverbands Olpe statt. Durch einrichtungsübergreifende Arbeitsgruppen (im Curriculum zusätzlich berücksichtigt) und die internen Vernetzungsstrukturen der Caritas sind Nachahmungseffekte und weitere Veränderungsprozesse zugunsten einer partizipativen Bildungspädagogik daher auch in anderen Einrichtungen der Caritas zu erwarten.

Darüber hinaus wird das Pilotprojekt in Fachzeitschriften und Publikationen sowie auf Tagungen und Kongressen vorgestellt und dessen Inhalte und Ergebnisse der Fachöffentlichkeit präsentiert.

Im Master- Studiengang „Bildung in der frühen Kindheit“ an der Universität zu Köln wurde erstmalig im Wintersemester 2014/15 ein Seminar zum Thema Partizipation in Kindertagesstätten („Bildungsprozesse partizipativ und bewegt gestalten“) durchgeführt. Wiederholungen und weitere Veranstaltungen sind in Planung.

Literature

Flyer:
SIGNALS Bookmarks
SIGNALS Postcards

Lisa Stemmler: Qualitative Forschungsarbeit zum Professionsverständnis von Kita-Fachkräften zum Thema Partizipation von Kindern und Eltern im KiTa-Alltag. Hausarbeit. Uni Köln
Miriam Eble: Teilhabe von Kindern in Kindertageseinrichtungen - Bedeutung und Gestaltung partizipativer Erfahrungen. Hausarbeit. Uni Köln

Films:
Gemeinsam zu mehr Handlungsspielraum (Deutsch)
More space for movement and activity oriented learning. (English)
German version on YouTube
English version on YouTube

Presentations:
International Early Childhood Education Conference
Kaposvár, 05 - 06 February, 2015
Kaschefi-Haude, I.: Introduction to SIGNALS
Fischer, K.: Signals – The German SIGNALS Project.

9. Osnabrücker Kongress „Bewegte Kindheit“. 19.-21-03-2015:
Fischer, K./Schneider, J.: Gemeinsam zu mehr Handlungsspielraum – eine europäische Perspektive zur Partizipation von Kindern, Eltern und Fachkräften.

Luxemburg, Ministere de L´Education nationale, de l´Enfance et de la Jeunesse:
Conferenz: Spielplatzgestaltung kindgerecht und naturnah. 10.06.2015:
Fischer, K.:Entwicklungs- und Lernbedeutung für Frei- und Spielraumplanung
Seeger, R.: Planerische Aspekte bei der Gestaltung von Spielräumen anhand von Beispielen (Signals)

Publications:
Schneider, J. (2015): Bericht: SIGNALS – Strengthening Activity-Oriented Interaction and Growth in Early Years and Transitions. Ein Comenius Projekt zur Partizipation von Kindern, Eltern und Fachkräften. In: Motorik. Zeitschrift für Psychomotorik in Entwicklung, Bildung und Gesundheit. Reinhardt Verlag. München. 38.Jg. 3/2015, 143-144

Fischer, K./Schneider, J. (2015): Gemeinsam zu mehr Handlungsspielraum – ein handlungsorientierter Zugang zur Partizipation von Kindern, Eltern und Fachkräften im Rahmen eines europäischen Forschungsprojekts. In: Zimmer, R. (Hrsg.) (voraussichtlich 2015): Kindheit in Bewegung. Kongressband. (in progress)

Literatur

Flyer:
SIGNALS Lesezeichen
SIGNALS Postkarten

Lisa Stemmler: Qualitative Forschungsarbeit zum Professionsverständnis von Kita-Fachkräften zum Thema Partizipation von Kindern und Eltern im KiTa-Alltag. Hausarbeit. Uni Köln
Miriam Eble: Teilhabe von Kindern in Kindertageseinrichtungen - Bedeutung und Gestaltung partizipativer Erfahrungen. Hausarbeit. Uni Köln

Filme:
Gemeinsam zu mehr Handlungsspielraum (Deutsch)
More space for movement and activity oriented learning. (English)
Deutsche Version auf YouTube
Englische Version auf YouTube

Vorträge:
International Early Childhood Education Conference
Kaposvár, 05 - 06 February, 2015
Kaschefi-Haude, I.: Introduction to SIGNALS
Fischer, K.: Signals – The German SIGNALS Project.

9. Osnabrücker Kongress „Bewegte Kindheit“. 19.-21-03-2015:
Fischer, K./Schneider, J.: Gemeinsam zu mehr Handlungsspielraum – eine europäische Perspektive zur Partizipation von Kindern, Eltern und Fachkräften.
Präsentation

Luxemburg, Ministere de L´Education nationale, de l´Enfance et de la Jeunesse:
Conferenz: Spielplatzgestaltung kindgerecht und naturnah. 10.06.2015:
Fischer, K.:Entwicklungs- und Lernbedeutung für Frei- und Spielraumplanung
Seeger, R.: Planerische Aspekte bei der Gestaltung von Spielräumen anhand von Beispielen (Signals)

Publikationen:
Schneider, J. (2015): Bericht: SIGNALS – Strengthening Activity-Oriented Interaction and Growth in Early Years and Transitions. Ein Comenius Projekt zur Partizipation von Kindern, Eltern und Fachkräften. In: Motorik. Zeitschrift für Psychomotorik in Entwicklung, Bildung und Gesundheit. Reinhardt Verlag. München. 38.Jg. 3/2015, 143-144

Fischer, K./Schneider, J. (2015): Gemeinsam zu mehr Handlungsspielraum – ein handlungsorientierter Zugang zur Partizipation von Kindern, Eltern und Fachkräften im Rahmen eines europäischen Forschungsprojekts. In: Zimmer, R. (Hrsg.) (voraussichtlich 2015): Kindheit in Bewegung. Kongressband. (in Arbeit)

Formation of the National Team/s

The Danish research team is led by the Department of Education (DPU), Aarhus University (Stig Broström, Ole Henrik Hansen & Anders Skriver Jensen). One preschool participates, including teachers, children and parents.

Forskerne bag projektet

Den danske del af projektet bliver ledet af Danmarks institut for Pædagogik og Uddannelse, Aarhus Universitet (Stig Broström, Ole Henrik Hansen & Anders Skriver Jensen). En børnehave deltager i projektet med personale, børn og forældre.

Needs Analysis

The overall aim is to gain knowledge on how preschool teachers can undertake project work on health, and collaborate with the children and parents along the way.

Research questions:

  • How can teachers develop new pedagogical aims and content related to health?
  • How can teachers engage in collaboration with parents and children on the issue of health in preschool?

The theoretical base for our work is Didaktik. Part of this perspective is emphasizing planning and reflection on content and aims, and also reflecting on how well-being, democracy and participation is integral to health-oriented pedagogic practice (Broström, 2014).

Indledende analyse og kontekst

Det overordnede mål er at skabe viden om hvordan pædagoger arbejder med sundhedsfremmende pædagogik, og hvordan de inkluderer børn og forældre i dette arbejde.

Forskningsspørgsmål:

  • Hvordan kan pædagoger udvikle nye mål og indhold relateret til sundhed?
  • Hvordan kan pædagoger og forældre og børn samarbejde om sundhed?

Det teoretiske udgangspunkt for forskningen er didaktik, herunder et fokus på planlægning og refleksion over indhold. Også demokrati og deltagelse er centrale begreber (Broström, 2014).

SIGNALS curriculum

The ongoing development work at the preschool focuses on reflecting on what health in preschool could mean. We depart from the positive definition given by WHO (1946), who defines health as a condition of physical, mental and social weel-being – and not just absence of illness or weakness. Teachers and researchers reflect on this concept of health in relation to preschool curriculum, content and aims.

SIGNALS Curriculum

Sammen med pædagogerne udforskes spørgsmålet om hvad sundhed i børnehaven kan betyde, hvilke praktiske implikationer det kan have, osv? Vi går ud fra WHO’s positive sundhedsbegreb, som understreger at sundhed er mere end blot fravær af sygdom. Det er også trivsel, osv.

Implementation

The study is implemented with the following main characteristics:

  • Empirical starting point.
  • Theory-practice –driven pedagogical development work.
  • Selected parents and teachers were interviewed in the beginning to establish local needs.
  • Researchers visit the preschool, talk with the staff about the ongoing development work, ask questions and observe practice.
Implementering

Følgende karakteristika kendetegner studiet:

  • Empirisk udgangspunkt-
  • Teori/praksis-vekselvirkning.
  • Udvalgte pædagoger og forældre blev indledningsvist interviewet for at etablere lokale behov og problemstillinger.
  • Forskere besøger børnehaven, hvor de samtaler med voksne, og observerer praksis.
Exploitation/Practical Application

The main components of the study’s design is:

  1. Qualitative interviews. These provide the main body of the data.
  2. Collective practitioner/researcher reflection seminars, as a cornerstone of the developmental work.
  3. The teachers’ everyday practice and reflections.
Indhold

Hovedindholdet er:

  1. Kvalitative interviews.
  2. Refleksionsseminarer.
  3. Pædagogerne hverdagsrefleksioner.
Dissemination and Sustainability

The knowledge from the project is embedded in:

  • a course on early childhood education and care, taught annually at DPU, Aarhus University
  • presentations and lectures given by the three researchers at various occasions in Danish municipalities and day-care institutions.
  • planned: EECERA conference.
  • A peer-reviewed publication on preschool teachers’ health-pedagogy reflections.
Spredningsstrategi

Viden fra studiet bliver indlejret i:

  • Et småbørnsmodul som udbydes på Aarhus Universitet, overbygningen.
  • Forskellige oplæg og foredrag ved de deltagende forskere rundt om i institutioner og kommuner.
  • Konference-præsentationer.
  • En udgivelse om pædagogers sundhedsdidaktiske refleksioner.
Formation of the National Team/s

The Greek research team is led by the Faculty of Education at the University of Western Macedonia. The team aimed at designing and implementing a project, based on the main goals of the multilateral Signals project, with the purpose to develop some appropriate practices for children attending the first grades of primary school. The ultimate goal was to make them experience ‘participation’ as a pleasant and interactive process in a task-based framework.

More precisely, the project aims at developing children’s cooperation and interaction skills, with particular emphasis on enabling children to participate actively and to co-decide on various ‘realistic’ issues with their peers and parents in the school and family environment respectively. Furthermore, an attempt was made to improve teachers’ skills, in order for them to be able to develop children’s communicative and collaborative skills in close cooperation and interaction with the parents. In such a context, the basic goals were:

  • Developing skills and strategies of co-constructing knowledge.
  • Encouraging children's expression through verbal and non-verbal communication.
  • Creating an environment for children's active participation.
  • Create conditions for parents’ participation in their children’s learning process.
  • Improving teachers’ skills in developing children’s interaction, cooperation and participation as basic components of the teaching/learning process
Δημιουργία της ελληνικής ερευνητικής ομάδας

Η ελληνική ερευνητική ομάδα αποτελείται από μέλη ΔΕΠ που ανήκουν στην Παιδαγωγική Σχολή του Πανεπιστημίου Δυτικής Μακεδονίας.

Σκοπός της ομάδας μας ήταν ο σχεδιασμός και η υλοποίηση ενός σχεδίου δράσης, με βάση τους κύριους στόχους του πολυμερούς προγράμματος SIGNALS.

Απώτερος σκοπός ήταν να βοηθήσουμε τα παιδιά να βιώσουν τη «συμμετοχή» ως μια ευχάριστη και αλληλοδραστική διαδικασία μέσα σε ένα δραστηριοκεντρική πλαίσιο.

Πιο συγκεκριμένα, το ελληνικό πρότζεκτ στοχεύει στην ανάπτυξη των δεξιοτήτων συνεργασίας και αλληλεπίδρασης των παιδιών. Ιδιαίτερη έμφαση δίνεται στην ενδυνάμωση της δυνατότητας των παιδιών να συμμετέχουν ενεργά και να συναποφασίζουν σε ποικίλες «ρεαλιστικές» καταστάσεις με τους συνομηλίκους και τους γονείς τους, είτε στο σχολικό είτε στο οικογενειακό περιβάλλον.

Επιπλέον, έγινε προσπάθεια να βελτιωθούν οι δεξιότητες των εκπαιδευτικών, προκειμένου να είναι σε θέση να συμβάλλουν στην ανάπτυξη των συνεργατικών δεξιοτήτων των παιδιών, σε στενή συνεργασία και αλληλεπίδραση με τους γονείς. Σε ένα τέτοιο πλαίσιο, οι βασικοί στόχοι ήταν:

  • Ανάπτυξη δεξιοτήτων και στρατηγικών για την συνοικοδόμηση της γνώσης.
  • Ενθάρρυνση της έκφρασης των παιδιών μέσω της λεκτικής και μη λεκτικής επικοινωνίας.
  • Δημιουργία κατάλληλου περιβάλλοντος για την ενεργητική συμμετοχή των παιδιών.
  • Δημιουργία κατάλληλων συνθηκών για τη συμμετοχή των γονέων στη διαδικασία μάθησης των παιδιών τους.
  • Βελτίωση των δεξιοτήτων των δασκάλων έτσι ώστε να συμβάλλουν στην ανάπτυξη της αλληλεπίδρασης, της συνεργασίας και της συμμετοχής των παιδιών, οι οποίες θεωρούνται βασικές συνιστώσες της διαδικασίας διδασκαλίας και μάθησης.
Needs Analysis

Given the aims of SIGNALS, needs analysis was focused on the basic concepts participation/co­decision and was carried out on the following four levels: (A) on the level of School Curriculum, (B) on the level of the perceptions of the children, (C) on the level of the views of the teachers, and (D) on the level of the views of the parents.

More specifically,

Α) An attempt was made to examine the Greek Cross-Thematic Curriculum Framework for Language for the first and second grade of primary school focused on the following main research question: “Does the Greek Language Curriculum of First and Second Grade of primary school aim at strengthening children’s skills for active interaction?” In other words, “is the strengthening of children’s skills for active interaction one of the basic aims of the Greek Language Curriculum of First and Second Grade of primary education?” The main research question was specified into five sub-questions related to five basic concepts- “interaction”, “participation”, “communication”, “cooperation” and “play”- under investigation. These concepts were used as ‘indicators’ of strengthening children’s skills for active interaction.

B) The exploration of children’s perceptions concerning their interaction, cooperation and participation in favorite games in the classroom was carried out with group interviews. To this purpose, structured interviews were conducted with 45 primary grade pupils. The interviews were conducted in a playful context, through using flashcards, which stimulated children’s motivation for their participating in the “question – answer” process.

C) The exploration of preschool and primary school teachers’ views concerning learning and participation in the classroom was conducted with structured written questionnaires. Specifically, the following research questions were set: a) What situations can be characterized as learning? b) What activities are important for learning? c) What are the best conditions for children’s learning? d) How do preschool teachers understand participation? (cf. www.signals-eu.com Project News, EECERA, Presentation (Power Point).
The reason why it was decided to ask both groups of teachers was because their views could have an impact upon the teaching and learning process in the first and second grade of the primary school and are, hence, factors that facilitate or impede the development of children’s participation and co-decision skills (Vrinioti, 2014; Vrinioti & Matsagouras 2004).

D) The exploration of parents’ views concerning participation/co-decision of their children (a) in the school environment and (b) in the home environment was carried out with focused group interviews.

The findings of needs analysis have been discussed in the research team and, on their basis, training seminars within the frame of the SIGNALS aims were provided for the three assistant researchers (postgraduate students) and of the classroom.

Ανάλυση αναγκών

Με βάση τους στόχους του SIGNALS η ανάλυση αναγκών εστιάστηκε στις βασικές έννοιες συμμετοχή/συναπόφαση και έγινε στα εξής τέσσερα πεδία: A) Σε επίπεδο Αναλυτικού Προγράμματος, B) διερεύνησης των αντιλήψεων των παιδιών, Γ) διερεύνησης των αντιλήψεων των εκπαιδευτικών και Δ) διερεύνησης των αντιλήψεων των γονέων.

Αναλυτικότερα

Α) Διεξήχθη μια ανάλυση του ελληνικού αναλυτικού προγράμματος της γλώσσας της πρώτης και δεύτερης τάξης του δημοτικού σχολείου. Το κύριο ερευνητικό ερώτημα ήταν: «Αποτελεί η ενδυνάμωση των δεξιοτήτων των παιδιών για ενεργό αλληλεπίδραση έναν από τους βασικούς στόχους του ελληνικού αναλυτικού προγράμματος της γλώσσας της πρώτης και δεύτερης τάξης του δημοτικού σχολείου;» Το συγκεκριμένο ερώτημα εξειδικεύθηκε σε πέντε υποερωτήματα που σχετίζονται με πέντε βασικές διερευνώμενες έννοιες- "αλληλεπίδραση", "συμμετοχή", "επικοινωνία", "συνεργασία" και "παιχνίδι". Οι έννοιες αυτές θεωρήθηκαν ενδεικτικές (ως δείκτες) για την ενίσχυση των δεξιοτήτων ενεργητικής αλληλεπίδρασης των παιδιών.

Β) Η διερεύνηση των αντιλήψεων των παιδιών της πρώτης δημοτικού σχετικά με την αλληλεπίδραση και τη συνεργασία στην σχολική τάξη έγινε με ομαδικές συνεντεύξεις. Διεξήχθησαν δομημένες συνεντεύξεις με 45 μαθητές και μαθήτριες της πρώτης δημοτικού, προκειμένου να προσδιοριστούν οι προτιμήσεις τους σε σχέση με την αλληλεπίδραση στην τάξη, τη συνεργασία και τη συμμετοχή τους σε αγαπημένα παιχνίδια. Οι συνεντεύξεις πραγματοποιήθηκαν σε ένα παιγνιώδες πλαίσιο, μέσα από τη χρήση εκπαιδευτικών καρτελών, γεγονός που ενίσχυσε τα κίνητρα των παιδιών για τη συμμετοχή τους στη διαδικασία «ερωτο-αποκρίσεων».

Γ) Η διερεύνηση των αντιλήψεων των δασκάλων και των νηπιαγωγών για θέματα που σχετίζονται με τη μάθηση και τη συμμετοχή έγινε με δομημένο ερωτηματολόγιο. Συγκεκριμένα, τέθηκαν τα ακόλουθα ερευνητικά ερωτήματα: α) Ποιες καταστάσεις μπορούν να χαρακτηριστούν ως μάθηση; β) Ποιες δραστηριότητες είναι σημαντικές για τη μάθηση; γ) Ποιες είναι οι καλύτερες συνθήκες για τη μάθηση των παιδιών; δ) Πώς αντιλαμβάνονται οι νηπιαγωγοί και οι δάσκαλοι το ρόλο που παίζει η συμμετοχή των παιδιών στη μαθησιακή διαδικασία (Βλ. www.signals-eu.com Project News, EECERA, Presentation (Power Point). Αποφασίστηκε να ερωτηθούν και οι δύο ομάδες εκπαιδευτικών διότι οι απόψεις τους θα μπορούσαν να έχουν επιπτώσεις στη διαδικασία της διδασκαλίας και της μάθησης στην πρωτοσχολική εκπαίδευση και αποτελούν, ως εκ τούτου, παράγοντες που διευκολύνουν ή εμποδίζουν την ανάπτυξη των δεξιοτήτων συμμετοχής και συνεργασίας των παιδιών (Vrinioti, 2014; Vrinioti & Matsagouras 2004).

Δ) Η διερεύνηση των αντιλήψεων των γονέων αναφορικά με την συμμετοχή/συναπόφαση των παιδιών σε θέματα α) του οικογενειακού και β) του σχολικού περιβάλλοντος έγινε με ομαδικές συνεντεύξεις.

Τα ευρήματα της ανάλυσης αναγκών συζητήθηκαν στην ερευνητική ομάδα και με αυτά ως βάση, στο πλαίσιο των στόχων του SIGNALS, έγιναν επιμορφωτικά σεμινάρια για την εκπαιδευτικό της τάξης και τους τρεις βοηθούς ερευνητές (μεταπτυχιακοί φοιτητές).

SIGNALS curriculum

The Greek SIGNALS project was based on the following principles: ''participation", "co-decision", "communication", "cooperation", "interaction". Since a topic-based approach (Bourke, 2006) was followed, the teaching module designed by the research group, consisted of ten (10) main thematic units that were based on children’s needs and interests and were related to “School and Social Life”.

The ten interventions were designed to carry out in a game-based (Wright, Betteridge & Buckby, 2005) and task-based framework (Willis, 1996), with the cooperative activities being at the core of the project. In such a context, the children were provided with opportunities for active participation and cooperation while making decisions and solving problems. Thus, the project gave particular emphasis on enabling children to participate actively and on using their right to co-decide on issues of concern both in the school and at home. It was the researchers’ intention therefore to select and design tasks that would facilitate oral communication, interaction, and cooperation. The need for well-designed group activities and games seemed to be of a great significance. A variety of activities were included: a) classroom activities, such as constructions, sorting, ordering, or arranging puzzles, pantomime etc, b) outdoor physical activities such as races, chases, role play games (Griva & Semoglou, 2013), c) out of school activities performed in cooperation with the parents.

Another key issue was to enhance adults’ wish to motivate their children’s involvement and their ability to organize appropriate processes and conditions for developing children’s interaction with peers and their parents. Towards this direction, the class teacher could act as the ‘bridge’ between the research team, the parents and the children. She could also propose or even make modifications to the activities and actions designed by the research group, based on her teaching experience and her relations with the students.

SIGNALS Curriculum

Το ελληνικό SIGNALS-πρότζεκτ βασίστηκε στις ακόλουθες αρχές: '' συμμετοχή", " συναπόφαση", "επικοινωνία", "συνεργασία", "αλληλεπίδραση". Καθώς υιοθετήθηκε η θεματοκεντρική προσέγγιση (Bourke, 2006), οι διδακτικές ενότητες που σχεδιάστηκαν από την ερευνητική ομάδα, αποτελούνται από δέκα (10) κύριες θεματικές που βασίζονται στις ανάγκες και τα ενδιαφέροντα των παιδιών και σχετίζονται με το αναλυτικό πρόγραμμα του σχολείου (π.χ. «Σχολική και κοινωνική ζωή»).

Οι δέκα παρεμβάσεις σχεδιάστηκαν έτσι ώστε να πραγματοποιηθούν σε ένα δραστηριοκεντρικό πλαίσιο (Willis, 1996) που βασίζεται στο παιχνίδι (Wright, Betteridge & Buckby, 2005) με τις δραστηριότητες συνεργασίας να αποτελούν τον πυρήνα του όλου. Σε ένα τέτοιο πλαίσιο, δόθηκαν ευκαιρίες στα παιδιά για ενεργή συμμετοχή και συνεργασία κατά τη λήψη αποφάσεων και την επίλυση προβλημάτων. Έτσι, δόθηκε ιδιαίτερη έμφαση στο να καταστούν ικανά τα παιδιά να συμμετέχουν ενεργά και να χρησιμοποιούν το δικαίωμά τους να συναποφασίζουν για τα θέματα που τα απασχολούν, τόσο στο σχολείο όσο και στο σπίτι. Ήταν πρόθεση των ερευνητών, επομένως, να επιλέξουν και να σχεδιάσουν δραστηριότητες που θα διευκόλυναν την λεκτική επικοινωνία, την αλληλεπίδραση και τη συνεργασία. Αναδείχθηκε έτσι η ανάγκη για καλά σχεδιασμένες ομαδικές δραστηριότητες και παιχνίδια. Συμπεριλήφθηκε μια πλειάδα δραστηριοτήτων που περιλαμβάνουν: α) δραστηριότητες για την τάξη, όπως κατασκευές, τη διαλογή, την συναρμολόγηση παζλ, παντομίμα κλπ, β) υπαίθριες κινητικές δραστηριότητες, όπως αγώνες ταχύτητας, κυνηγητό, παιχνίδια ρόλων (Γρίβα & Σέμογλου, 2013), γ) δραστηριότητες έξω από το σχολείο που εκτελούνται σε συνεργασία με τους γονείς.

Ένα ακόμη κομβικό ζήτημα αποτέλεσε η ενίσχυση της διάθεσης των ενηλίκων να παρακινούν τα παιδιά για συμμετοχή καθώς και η ενίσχυση της ικανότητά τους να δημιουργούν τις κατάλληλες συνθήκες για την αλληλεπίδραση των παιδιών με συνομηλίκους και τους γονείς τους. Προς αυτή την κατεύθυνση, η δασκάλα της τάξης μπορούσε να λειτουργήσει ως «γέφυρα» ανάμεσα στην ερευνητική ομάδα, στους γονείς και στα παιδιά. Θα μπορούσε να προτείνει δραστηριότητες, να τροποποιήσει τις δραστηριόττητες και δράσεις που σχεδιάστηκαν από την ερευνητική ομάδα, με βάση την εκπαιδευτική της εμπειρία και τις σχέσεις της με τους

Implementation

The Thematic Units of the Project were incorporated in the school weekly timetable and were mainly delivered by the class teacher in cooperation with the assistant researchers (three postgraduate students). As already mentioned, all of them were trained and familiarized with the SIGNALS’S aims, procedures and the innovative methods with the ultimate purpose to provide optimal conditions for children’s participation, cooperation and interaction.

In that context, an attempt was made to help children learn by a) being with others, while feeling secure and confident enough to take risks, to explore, to take part in challenging experiences (Broady, 2006; Johnson & Johnson, 1999), b) being involved in making choices and decisions, and solving problems, c) doing mostly in group work, which allows for meaningful communication and help between them (Broady, 2006; Johnson & Johnson, 1999).

The project was carried out in the following three stages:

Pre-task stage: In the first stage, the children were introduced to the topic and tasks in a multimodal context and were exposed to language related to the theme. In addition, the children were motivated to participate in games and communicative playful activities that follow in the next stage.

Task cycle: In that stage, the teacher divided the class into groups of 4-5 children, asked them to observe a model of how to perform the task and presented “the group work rules”. The children were encouraged to use the language creatively and spontaneously through participating actively in activities and performing them by deciding together on the ‘solution of the problem’. In other words, they cooperated on a common group task, helping each other, interacting with each other during “problem-solving negotiation and assuming responsibility for contributing to the group task. Upon the completion of the task, the leader of each group announced their decision and presented the process of solving the problem to the teacher and the classmates.
Emphasis was placed on interpersonal relationships and group dynamics, by providing children with opportunities and encouraging them to participate actively in the learning process with the purpose to achieve efficient learning outcomes. The teacher was a coordinator, supervisor and experienced member of the group, who encouraged children to explain or describe these displays to their classmates.

Follow up phase: The purpose of that stage was to provide feedback to the children, to make children practice newly acquired knowledge through participation in a cooperative physical activity, and to motivate parents’ involvement in cooperative/interactive activities. The purpose of the first five interventions was to make children learn to work in groups, to cooperate with their peers, to interact, to participate and to take decisions together on a common target. Parents’ involvement became even greater in the last five thematic units of the project. In the last five units, during each intervention a game was given to the children, which was completed in cooperation with their parents at home.

Εφαρμογή

Οι θεματικές ενότητες του έργου ενσωματώθηκαν στο εβδομαδιαίο ωρολόγιο πρόγραμμα του σχολείου και εφαρμόστηκαν κατά κύριο λόγο από τη δασκάλα της τάξης, σε συνεργασία με τους βοηθούς ερευνητές (τρεις μεταπτυχιακούς φοιτητές). Όπως αναφέρθηκε ήδη, όλοι τους είχαν επιμορφωθεί και είχαν προηγουμένως εξοικειωθεί με τους στόχους του προγράμματος, τις διαδικασίες και τις καινοτόμες μεθόδους, ώστε να μπορούν να παρέχουν τις βέλτιστες συνθήκες για τη συμμετοχή των παιδιών, τη συνεργασία και την αλληλεπίδραση.

Στο πλαίσιο αυτό, έγινε προσπάθεια να βοηθηθούν τα παιδιά στη μάθηση μέσα από: α) τη συνύπαρξη με τους άλλους, και την αίσθηση ασφάλειας και αυτοπεποίθησης που οδηγεί στην ανάληψη πρωτοβουλιών, στην εξερεύνηση, στην ανταπόκριση σε προκλήσεις (Broady, 2006? Johnson & Johnson, 1999), β) την εμπλοκή τους στην λήψη αποφάσεων και επιλογών, καθώς και την επίλυση των προβλημάτων, γ) τη δράση τους σε ομάδες εργασίας που επιτρέπουν την ουσιαστική επικοινωνία και βοήθεια μεταξύ τους (Broady, 2006; Johnson & Johnson, 1999).

Το πρότζεκτ υλοποιήθηκε στα ακόλουθα τρία στάδια:

Στάδιο προετοιμασίας: Στο πρώτο στάδιο, τα παιδιά εισήχθησαν στο θέμα και τις δραστηριότητες σε ένα πολυτροπικό εκπαιδευτικό πλαίσιο και εκτέθηκαν στη γλώσσα που σχετίζονταν με το συγκεκριμένο θέμα. Επιπλέον, δημιουργήθηκαν κίνητρα στα παιδιά να συμμετάσχουν σε παιχνίδια και επικοινωνιακές παιγνιώδεις δραστηριότητες που ακολουθούν στο επόμενο στάδιο.

Κύριος κύκλος δραστηριότητας: Σε αυτό το στάδιο, η εκπαιδευτικός χώρισε την τάξη σε ομάδες των 4-5 παιδιών, τους ζήτησε να παρατηρήσουν ένα μοντέλο παράδειγμα εκτέλεσης καθηκόντων και παρουσίασε «τους κανόνες της ομάδας εργασίας". Τα παιδιά ενθαρρύνθηκαν να χρησιμοποιούν τη γλώσσα δημιουργικά και αυθόρμητα μέσω ενεργούς συμμετοχής σε δραστηριότητες, τις οποίες εκτέλεσαν αποφασίζοντας από κοινού για την «λύση του προβλήματος». Με άλλα λόγια, τα παιδιά συνεργάστηκαν σε μια κοινή ομαδική δραστηριότητα, βοηθώντας το ένα το άλλο, αλληλεπιδρώντας μεταξύ τους κατά τη διάρκεια της διαπραγμάτευσης για την επίλυση προβλημάτων και αναλαμβάνοντας ευθύνη για την ολοκλήρωση της εργασίας της ομάδας. Με την ολοκλήρωση του έργου, ο αρχηγός της κάθε ομάδας ανακοίνωνε την απόφασή τους και παρουσίαζε τη διαδικασία επίλυσης του προβλήματος στον δάσκαλο και στους συμμαθητές.
Δόθηκε έμφαση στις διαπροσωπικές σχέσεις και τη δυναμική της ομάδας, με την παροχή στα παιδιά ευκαιριών και την ενθάρρυνσή τους να συμμετάσχουν ενεργά στη διαδικασία της μάθησης, με σκοπό να προκύψουν επιτυχή μαθησιακά αποτελέσματα. Ο δάσκαλος είχε τον ρόλο του συντονιστή, επόπτη και έμπειρου μέλους της ομάδας, και ενθάρρυνε τα παιδιά να εξηγήσουν ή να περιγράψουν την πορεία δράσης στους συμμαθητές τους.

Το στάδιο της ανατροφοδότησης: Ο σκοπός αυτού του σταδίου ήταν να παράσχει ανατροφοδότηση στα παιδιά, να τους δώσει δυνατότητα να εφαρμόσουν την πρόσφατα αποκτηθείσα γνώση μέσα από τη συμμετοχή σε μια συνεργατική κινητική δραστηριότητα, και επίσης να παρακινήσει τους γονείς να εμπλακούν σε συνεργατικές / διαδραστικές δραστηριότητες. Στόχος των πρώτων πέντε παρεμβάσεων ήταν να κάνουμε τα παιδιά να μάθουν να δουλεύουν σε ομάδες, να συνεργάζονται με τους συμμαθητές τους, να αλληλεπιδρούν, να συμμετέχουν και να λαμβάνουν αποφάσεις από κοινού για έναν κοινό σκοπό. Η εμπλοκή των γονέων έγινε ακόμα μεγαλύτερη στις τελευταίες πέντε θεματικές ενότητες του έργου. Σε αυτές τις ενότητες, δίνονταν στα παιδιά (σε κάθε παρέμβαση) ένα παιχνίδι το οποίο ολοκληρώνονταν σε συνεργασία με τους γονείς τους στο σπίτι.

Internal Evaluation

On-going and summative forms of evaluation were conducted in order to record the effectiveness of the Greek Project with the employment of the following instruments:

  • Focus group interviews were conducted with the children’s parents at the end of the project.
    During that follow up meeting, there was a fruitful discussion with the parents on issues related to their involvement in the project. Parents reported on their children’s positive attitude to sharing their experience related to the interventions with their parents. In addition, the parents showed a high degree of willingness to further promote cooperation with the class teacher in relation to any other initiatives. They felt very pleased with the interventions, and declared that they were motivated to cooperate with their children at home and to get involved in the game brought by the children at home, as well as to interact with their children in order to solve problems. The meeting ended with the agreement from the part of all stakeholders on building further cooperation between ‘family and teacher’ in the future, and initiating further actions and activities that bring school closer to home.
  • Focus group interviews were conducted with the children, at the end of the project, to record their satisfaction from the project and the difficulties they encountered.
    The children expressed their positive views on cooperation, interaction and co-decision both with the other peers at school and their parents at home. They declared that at the beginning of the project the process of working in groups sounded strange to them, because the children were not used to group working. However, those difficulties were overcome from the third unit, although in a few cases when they disagreed without being able to find a mutually acceptable decision.
  • Journals were kept by the teachers once a week in order to reflect on the learning process, on issues related to children’s participation, communication and interaction.
    At the beginning of the project implementation, the class teacher perceived working in a task-based context as a time consuming process, because certain conditions should be created from the part of the teacher in order for the children to have the possibility of active participation and co-decision. However, after the third teaching session, she considered the interventions that were implemented in a playful, interdisciplinary context as a successful experiment, since those games and activities motivated the children to participate actively and to co-decide on ‘realistic’ issues that concern children. For this reason, she suggested to organize activities involving various topics, enable children to freely express their views, interact, cooperate and co –decide on issues within a task-based framework, in the ‘flexible zone’ context.
  • Journals were kept by the assistant researchers (postgraduate students) once a week in order to reflect on the learning process, on issues related to children’s participation, communication and interaction.
    The assistant researches (postgraduate students) recorded and reflected on issues related to: a) the positive aspects of the project, b) the difficulties encountered by the children in an interactive context, c) their personal experience from the project.
    The assistant researchers incorporated the ‘game based context’ and the opportunities given to the children to “participate actively, to interact and take decisions in cooperation with other peers and their parents” among the positive aspects of the project. They also highlighted the effective cooperation they had with the class teacher, as well as parents’ willingness to get involved in the learning process. They commented on the fact that the positive results of the interventions were obvious from the third lesson onwards, since the children were not used to working in such a context.
    They also admitted that, through their involvement in the SIGNALS project, they realized they should change their philosophy on educational processes, and they could create a more cooperative atmosphere involving children’s active participation and co-decision.
Εσωτερική Αξιολόγηση

Διενεργήθηκε διαμορφωτικής και τελικής μορφής αξιολόγηση με σκοπό να καταγραφεί η αποτελεσματικότητα του ελληνικού προγράμματος με την εφαρμογή των ακόλουθων εργαλείων (μέσων):

  • Με την ολοκλήρωση των 10 παρεμβάσεων έγιναν εστιασμένες συνεντεύξεις με τους γονείς των παιδιών. Κατά τη διάρκεια της συνάντησης που επακολούθησε, υπήρξε μια γόνιμη συζήτηση με τους γονείς σχετικά με θέματα που σχετίζονται με τη συμμετοχή τους στο πρόγραμμα. Οι γονείς αναφέρθηκαν στις θετικές αντιδράσεις των παιδιών τους σχετικά με τις εμπειρίες που μοιράστηκαν μαζί τους. Επιπλέον, οι γονείς επέδειξαν υψηλό βαθμό προθυμίας για την περαιτέρω προώθηση της συνεργασίας με τη δασκάλα της τάξης σε σχέση με οποιεσδήποτε άλλες πρωτοβουλίες. Αισθάνθηκαν πολύ ικανοποιημένοι με τις παρεμβάσεις, και δήλωσαν ότι απέκτησαν κίνητρα για συνεργασία τα παιδιά τους στο σπίτι και για συμμετοχή στο παιχνίδι που έφεραν τα παιδιά στο σπίτι και για αλληλεπίδραση με τα παιδιά τους, προκειμένου να επιλύσουν προβλήματα. Η συνάντηση ολοκληρώθηκε με τη συμφωνία εκ μέρους όλων των ενδιαφερομένων για την οικοδόμηση περαιτέρω συνεργασίας μεταξύ «οικογένειας και δασκάλου» στο μέλλον, και στην ανάληψη κοινών ενεργειών και δράσεων που φέρνουν πιο κοντά το σχολείο στο σπίτι.
  • Τα παιδιά εξέφρασαν τις θετικές απόψεις τους σχετικά με τη συνεργασία, την αλληλεπίδραση και την συναπόφαση τόσο με τους συμμαθητές και τις συμμαθήτριές στο σχολείο όσο και με τους γονείς τους στο σπίτι. Δήλωσαν ότι κατά την έναρξη του πρότζεκτ, η διαδικασία της εργασίας σε ομάδες τους φάνηκε ξένη, γιατί δεν ήταν συνηθισμένα στην ομαδική εργασία. Ωστόσο, οι δυσκολίες αυτές ξεπεράστηκαν κατά την τρίτη ενότητα, αν και σε μερικές περιπτώσεις, όταν διαφωνούσαν, δεν ήταν σε θέση να καταλήξουν σε μια αμοιβαία αποδεκτή απόφαση.
  • Από τη δασκάλα τηρήθηκαν ημερολόγια μία φορά την εβδομάδα, ώστε να υπάρξει προβληματισμός σχετικά με τη διαδικασία της μάθησης και με θέματα που σχετίζονται με τη συμμετοχή, επικοινωνία και αλληλεπίδραση των παιδιών. Κατά την έναρξη της υλοποίησης του πρότζεκτ, η δασκάλα της τάξης είχε την εντύπωση πως η εργασία που θα βασίζονταν σε δραστηριοκεντρικό πλαίσιο θα ήταν μια χρονοβόρα διαδικασία, διότι θα πρέπει να δημιουργηθούν από την πλευρά της δασκάλας συγκεκριμένες συνθήκες, ώστε τα παιδιά να έχουν τη δυνατότητα ενεργούς συμμετοχής και συναπόφασης. Ωστόσο, μετά την τρίτη συνεδρία διδασκαλίας, ο δάσκαλος θεώρησε ότι οι παρεμβάσεις που υλοποιήθηκαν σε ένα παιγνιώδες, διεπιστημονικό πλαίσιο αποτέλεσαν ένα επιτυχημένο πείραμα, επειδή τα παιχνίδια και οι δραστηριότητες παρακίνησαν τα παιδιά να συμμετέχουν ενεργά και να συναποφασίζουν για «ρεαλιστικά» θέματα που τα αφορούν. Για τον λόγο αυτό, πρότεινε την οργάνωση δραστηριοτήτων διαφορετικών θεματικών που να επιτρέπουν στα παιδιά να εκφράζουν ελεύθερα τις απόψεις τους, να αλληλεπιδρούν, να συνεργάζονται και να συναποφασίζουν σε δραστηριοκεντρικό πλαίσιο, ενταγμένων στο αναλυτικό πρόγραμμα της «ευέλικτης ζώνης».
  • Από τους βοηθούς ερευνητές (μεταπτυχιακούς φοιτητές) κρατήθηκαν ημερολόγια μία φορά την εβδομάδα, ώστε να υπάρξει προβληματισμός σχετικά με τη διαδικασία της μάθησης, και με ζητήματα που σχετίζονται με τη συμμετοχή, επικοινωνία και αλληλεπίδραση των παιδιών.Οι βοηθοί ερευνητές (μεταπτυχιακοί φοιτητές) κατέγραψαν και προβληματίστηκαν για ζητήματα που αφορούσαν: α) τις θετικές πτυχές του έργου, β) τις δυσκολίες που αντιμετωπίζουν τα παιδιά σε ένα διαδραστικό πλαίσιο, γ) την προσωπική τους εμπειρία από το έργο. Οι βοηθοί ερευνητές συμπεριέλαβαν «το παιγνιώδες πλαίσιο» και τις ευκαιρίες που δόθηκαν στα παιδιά να «συμμετέχουν ενεργά, να αλληλεπιδρούν και να λαμβάνουν αποφάσεις σε συνεργασία με άλλους συμμαθητές και τους γονείς τους", στις θετικές πτυχές του έργου. Τόνισαν επίσης την αποτελεσματική συνεργασία που είχαν με τη δασκάλα της τάξης, καθώς και την προθυμία των γονέων να εμπλακούν στη διαδικασία της μάθησης. Σχολίασαν το γεγονός ότι τα θετικά αποτελέσματα των παρεμβάσεων ήταν εμφανή μετά από το τρίτο μάθημα, μια που τα παιδιά δεν είχαν συνηθίσει να εργάζονται σε ένα τέτοιο πλαίσιο.
    Παραδέχθηκαν επίσης ότι, μέσω της συμμετοχής τους στο πρόγραμμα SIGNAL, συνειδητοποίησαν ότι θα πρέπει να αλλάξουν τη φιλοσοφία τους για τις εκπαιδευτικές διαδικασίες, και ότι θα μπορούσαν να δημιουργήσουν μια πιο συνεργατική ατμόσφαιρα ενσωματώνοντας την ενεργό συμμετοχή και συναπόφαση των παιδιών.
Exploitation

The project’s innovation was mainly based on children’s active participation in a ‘task-based’ context as well as parents’ interaction with their children in collaborative activities. Teachers were provided with the opportunity to realise that ‘participation -cooperation - interaction’ are not time consuming sub-processes, compared to the traditional ones. On the contrary, they constitute a creative process resulting into children’s development of communication, cognitive and social skills.

For this purpose, the Greek Research Team will provide training possibility for both pre- and in-service levels of teacher education.

  • Specifically, the Greek SIGNALS syllabus would constitute a part of the following pregraduate modules/courses in the Faculty of Education of the University of Western Macedonia.:
    • Curricula of Early Childhood Education. Teaching Strategies (K. Vrinioti: academic tutor)
    • Teaching Greek as a second language (E. Griva: academic tutor)
    • Social pedagogical approaches in the primary school (I. Thoidis: academic tutor)
  • Moreover, training workshops will be conducted in primary schools in Florina city, with teachers and parents assuming an active role. These training events will be ‘governed’ by a number of principles involving the notions of participation, cooperation, interaction and co-decision.
Αξιοποίηση

Η καινοτομία του πρότζεκτ συνίσταται κυρίως στην ενεργή συμμετοχή των παιδιών σε ένα πλαίσιο εργασίας καθώς και στην αλληλεπίδραση των γονέων με τα παιδιά τους σε συνεργατικές δραστηριότητες. Στους εκπαιδευτικούς δόθηκε η ευκαιρία να βιώσουν και να συνειδητοποιήσουν, ότι «η συμμετοχή, η συναπόφαση, η συνεργασία και η αλληλεπίδραση», ως διαδικασίες μάθησης, δεν αποτελούν χρονοβόρες διαδικασίες σε σύγκριση με τις παραδοσιακές. Αντίθετα, συνθέτουν μια δημιουργική ευχάριστη διαδικασία που έχει ως αποτέλεσμα την ανάπτυξη των επικοινωνιακών, αλλά και των γνωστικών και των κοινωνικών δεξιοτήτων των παιδιών.

Για τον σκοπό αυτό, η ελληνική ερευνητική ομάδα θα παρέχει τη δυνατότητα για επιμορφωτικές δράσεις σε εκπαιδευτικούς, τόσο σε προυπηρεσιακό (προπτυχιακοί φοιτητές) όσο και ενδουπηρεσιακό επίπεδο (εν ενεργεία εκπαιδευτικοί). Συγκεκριμένα:

  • Το ελληνικό SIGNALS- syllabus μπορεί να αποτελέσει μέρος της ύλης (να ενταχθεί στην ύλη) των παρακάτω προπτυχικών μαθημάτων της Παιδαγωγικής Σχολής Φλώρινας του Πανεπιστημίου Δυτικής Μακεδονίας
    • Αναλυτικά προγράμματα προσχολικής εκπαίδευσης (Ακαδ. υπεύθυνη: Κ. Βρυνιώτη)
    • Η διδασκαλία της Ελληνικής ως δεύτερης γλώσσας (Ακαδ. υπεύθυνη: Ε. Γρίβα)
    • Κοινωνικοπαιδαγωγικές προσεγγίσεις στο δημοτικό σχολείο (Ακαδ. υπεύθυνος: Ι. Θωίδης)
  • Επιμορφωτικά εργαστήρια θα διεξαχθούν σε σχολεία της πρωτοβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης στην πόλη της Φλώρινας, με τους εκπαιδευτικούς και τους γονείς να αναλαμβάνουν ενεργό ρόλο και να έχουν άμεση συμμετοχή. Αυτές οι δράσεις θα υιοθετούν συγκεκριμένες αρχές που σχετίζονται με τις έννοιες της συμμετοχής, της συνεργασίας, της αλληλεπίδρασης και της συναπόφασης.
Dissemination and Sustainability

Some units of the Greek SIGNALS syllabus have already been tested in the following pre-graduate courses in the Faculty of Education of the University of Western Macedonia.

  1. Curricula of Early Childhood Education. Teaching Strategies (K. Vrinioti)
  2. Strategies of Acquiring/learning a language and Communication strategies (E. Griva)
  3. Social pedagogical approaches in the primary school (I. Thoidis)

Moreover, the principles, the design and the results of the Greek project were presented and discussed at the following international and national conferences:

  • A paper with the title “Pre-and primary school teachers’ views on children’s learning: A critical appraisal of the Greek case” (K. Vrinioti & I. Thoidis) was presented at the 25th EECERA Conference, Barcelona, Spain (7-10 September 2015).
  • A paper with the title “Participation’ as a learning process: A project at the first grades of primary school” (K. Vrinioti & E. Griva) will be presented at the 2nd International Conference on Reimagining Schooling , University of Macedonia- Thessaloniki (24-26 September 2015).
  • A symposium related to the implementation of the Greek project will be organized by K. Vrinioti with all members of the Greek research group at a seminar conducted by the University of Western Macedonia- Florina, on 4th November, 2015.
Διάχυση και βιωσιμότητα

Μερικές ενότητες του ελληνικού SIGNALS-πρότζεκτ. έχουν ήδη εξεταστεί/εφαρμοστεί πιλοτικά στα ακόλουθα προπτυχιακά μαθήματα της Παιδαγωγικής Σχολής του Πανεπιστημίου Δυτικής Μακεδονίας:

  1. Αναλυτικά προγράμματα προσχολικής εκπαίδευσης. Στρατηγικές διδασκαλίας (Κ. Βρυνιώτη)
  2. Στρατηγικές απόκτησης/εκμάθησης γλώσσας και επικοινωνιακές στρατηγικές (Ε. Γρίβα)
  3. Κοινωνικοπαιδαγωγικές προσεγγίσεις στο δημοτικό σχολείο (Ι. Θωίδης)

Επιπλέον, οι αρχές, ο σχεδιασμός και τα αποτελέσματα του ελληνικού προγράμματος παρουσιάστηκαν και συζητήθηκαν στα ακόλουθα διεθνή και εθνικά συνέδρια:

  • Μια ανακοίνωση με τίτλο“Pre-and primary school teachers’ views on children’s learning: A critical appraisal of the Greek case” (K. Vrinioti & I. Thoidis) παρουσιάστηκε στο EECERA Conference, Barcelona, Spain (7-10 September 2015).
  • Μια ανακοίνωση με τίτλο “Participation’ as a learning process: A project at the first grades of primary school” (K. Vrinioti & E. Griva) θα παρουσιαστεί στο 2ο Διεθνές συνέδριο Conference on Reimagining Schooling , University of Macedonia- Thessaloniki (24-26 September 2015).
  • Ένα συμπόσιο σχετικά με την αξιοποίηση του ελληνικού προγράμματος θα πραγματοποιηθεί από την Βρυνιώτη ((K. Vrinioti) και με τη συμμετοχή όλων των μελών της ελληνικής ερευνητικής ομάδας στα πλαίσια ημερίδας που οργανώνεται από την Κοσμητεία της Παιδαγωγικής Σχολής, του Πανεπιστήμιο Δυτικής Μακεδονίας στις 4 Νοεμβρίου 2015.
Presentations:

‘Participation’ as a learning process: a project at the first grades of primary school

References

Bourke, J. (2006). Designing a topic-based syllabus for young learners. ELT Journal, 60(3), 279-286.

Broady, E. (2006) Learning and Interaction: Developing Through Talk.  Language Learning Journal, 34, 62-66.

Broström, S., Sandberg,A., Johansson, I., Margetts, K.,Nyland, B., Frøkjær, T., Kieferle,Ch., Seifert, A., Roth, A., Ugaste, A. & Vrinioti, K. (2014). Preschool teachers’ views on children's learning: an international perspective. Early Child Development and Care, Taylor & Francis, 1-23.

Cross Curriculum Framework of Greek Language for Primary School. (2003). Athens: Pedagogical Institute. http://ebooks.edu.gr/info/cps/2deppsaps_Glossas.

Griva, E. & Semoglou, K. (2013). Foreign language and Games: Designing and implementing physical activities of creativity at early years (In Greek). Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Ed.

Johnson,W. & Johnson, R. (1999). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Boston: Allyn - Bacon.

Miles, M. & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. London: SAGE Publications.

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Willis, J. (1996). A Framework for Task-based Learning.London: Longman.

Wright, A., Betteridge, D. & Buckby, M. (2005). Games for language learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Vrinioti, K. (2014) Entwicklung der frühpädagogischen Ausbildung in Griechenland: Von der Funktionärin des Nationalstaats zur professionellen Akademikerin, in Fthenakis, W. (Hrsg.). Frühpädagogische Ausbildungen international, Reformen und Entwicklungen im Blickpunkt, 221-250. Bildungsverlag EINS, Köln

Vrinioti, K. (2013) Professionalisation in Early Childhood Education: A Comparative View of Emerging Professional Profiles in Germany (Bremen) and Greece. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 21, (1), 150-163

Vrinioti, K. /Matsagouras, E. (2004): The Transition from Kindergarten to School: Social Life and Learning in the School Class from the Perspective of the Beginners. European Con­fe­rence on Education Research. European E.ducation Research Association (EERA), Rethimno, 22-25 /9/, http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/150041.htm

References

Bourke, J. (2006). Designing a topic-based syllabus for young learners. ELT Journal, 60(3), 279-286.

Broady, E. (2006) Learning and Interaction: Developing Through Talk.  Language Learning Journal, 34, 62-66.

Broström, S., Sandberg,A., Johansson, I., Margetts, K.,Nyland, B., Frøkjær, T., Kieferle,Ch., Seifert, A., Roth, A., Ugaste, A. & Vrinioti, K. (2014). Preschool teachers’ views on children's learning: an international perspective. Early Child Development and Care, Taylor & Francis, 1-23.

Cross Curriculum Framework of Greek Language for Primary School. (2003). Athens: Pedagogical Institute. http://ebooks.edu.gr/info/cps/2deppsaps_Glossas.

Griva, E. & Semoglou, K. (2013). Foreign language and Games: Designing and implementing physical activities of creativity at early years (In Greek). Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Ed.

Johnson,W. & Johnson, R. (1999). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Boston: Allyn - Bacon.

Miles, M. & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. London: SAGE Publications.

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Willis, J. (1996). A Framework for Task-based Learning.London: Longman.

Wright, A., Betteridge, D. & Buckby, M. (2005). Games for language learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Vrinioti, K. (2014) Entwicklung der frühpädagogischen Ausbildung in Griechenland: Von der Funktionärin des Nationalstaats zur professionellen Akademikerin, in Fthenakis, W. (Hrsg.). Frühpädagogische Ausbildungen international, Reformen und Entwicklungen im Blickpunkt, 221-250. Bildungsverlag EINS, Köln

Vrinioti, K. (2013) Professionalisation in Early Childhood Education: A Comparative View of Emerging Professional Profiles in Germany (Bremen) and Greece. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 21, (1), 150-163

Vrinioti, K. /Matsagouras, E. (2004): The Transition from Kindergarten to School: Social Life and Learning in the School Class from the Perspective of the Beginners. European Con­fe­rence on Education Research. European E.ducation Research Association (EERA), Rethimno, 22-25 /9/, http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/150041.htm

Formation of the National Team/s

The Hungarian research team is lead by the General Directorate of Social Affairs and Child Protection. The University of Kaposvár Faculty of Pedagogy, the Kindergarten for Students’ praxis of Kaposvár, and the Szemünk Fénye Childcare Centre in the 11th District of Budapest are the national partners.

Two projects have been designed. The “Childcare project” focuses on settling in children under three years of age in the childcare centre within the framework of a year-round cooperation with parents. The “kindergarten project” for 3-6 year olds, focuses on emerging literacy.

The national team has been formed accordingly to ensure expertise related to initial education and ongoing professional training and to represent the services for the two different age groups.

A hazai team(ek) megalakítása

A magyar kutatócsoport vezetője a Szociális- és Gyermekvédelmi Főigazgatóság. A Kaposvári Egyetem Pedagógiai Kara, a Kaposvári Egyetem Gyakorló Óvodája, valamint a Budapest XI. kerületében működő Szemünk Fénye Bölcsőde hazai partnerekként kapcsolódtak be a projekt megvalósításába.

Két projektet terveztünk. A „Bölcsődei projekt” a 3 évesnél fiatalabb gyermekek bölcsődei beszoktatását helyezte középpontba a szülőkkel való egész éves együttműködés keretében. Az „Óvodai projekt” a 3-6 éves korosztály literációs fejlődésére fókuszált.

Ennek megfelelően a hazai team a kisgyermeknevelés, a jelenlegi szakemberképzések és az érintett két korosztály számára kínált szolgáltatások területén szakmailag felkészült munkatársakból szerveződött.

Needs Analysis

The overall aim of the childcare study and the kindergarten study is to look at social competences and skills of staff, parents and children in situations of settling in/adaptation of children to childcare centre and in situations of emerging literacy in kindergarten.

Research

Childcare project:
According to the national guidelines for work in childcare centres, an adaptation/settling in period with the participation of parents is to be ensured for children newly admitted to the centre, and the process is to be designed so as to meet the child’s and the parents’ needs. However, there is a huge variety of implementation across the centres in the country. The objectives are to assess existing practice and to find ways to enable parents and staff to improve the quality of pedagogical exchanges to better accommodate children’s needs and to ensure their better participation.

The research questions are related to the following:

  • the atmosphere enabling active engagement of parents and children
  • the interconnectedness between children’s experiences in the centre and their homes
  • the quality of interaction among staff, parents and children
  • how children are viewed

Kindergarten project:
The theme of the kindergarten-project is emerging literacy: first of all the role of fairy tales, books and story-telling in THE development of children (within families and in kindergarten). The objectives are to identify the weaknesses and strengths of current kindergarten practice in supporting emergent literacy, and to design methodological programmes for early childhood pedagogues and kindergarten pedagogues for developing a) their own competences for supporting literacy development of children; b) parents' competences which enhance literacy competences of children.

The research questions are related to the following:

  • Storytelling habits at home, trends and changes;
  • Children’s attitudes to tales, storytelling, and books in childcare centres and in kindergartens;
  • Supporting parents' involvement, possibilities for co-operation, promotion, mutual reflections regarding storytelling.
  • The place and the role of storytelling in the work of the educational staff.

Analytical framework

The term nevelés has a central role in early childhood work in Hungary. It is a holistic concept, including not just care and education but also health, behaviour, and social skills – everything needed in life. It has, therefore, much in common with the concept of ‘social pedagogy’ (as used, for example in Denmark or Germany) or “education in its broadest sense”. (Source: Kaga, Bennett Moss: Caring and Learning Together, UNESCO, 2010). Nevelés expresses that care and education are inseparable concepts. When you provide care, you also teach children directly or indirectly and vice versa. In other words, it relates to “pedagogy”. The national curricula of both types of services are based on this concept, and relate to cooperation, interaction, participation and democracy/democratic approach. Therefore, both the childcare project and the kindergarten project use the analytical framework created by

  • Legislation
  • National Guidance and the local pedagogical curriculum developed for work in childcare centres and kindergartens
  • Curriculum content related to principles of participation and involvement
  • Shier model for enhancing children’s participation in decision making

Methods

Document analysis

  • National curriculum framework
  • Local pedagogical programmes

Focus group discussions

The needs assessment maps needs, difficulties and successes of all three stakeholders (staff, parents and children) in situations of settling in, joint events and daily meetings in the childcare centre and in situations of story-telling in kindergarten and at home.

Szükségletelemzés

A bölcsődei és az óvodai kutatás általános célkitűzése a pedagógusok és a szülők szociális kompetenciáinak vizsgálata volt a bölcsődei beszoktatás helyzeteiben és az óvodások literációs fejlődésének támogatása során.

A kutatás

A bölcsődei projekt:

Az országos hatáskörű bölcsődei útmutatók szerint az újonnan bölcsődébe kerülő gyermekek bölcsődei beszoktatása a szülő részvételével történik, a folyamat tervezése a gyermek és a szülők igényeihez igazodik. Az ország bölcsődéiben a szülőkkel való együttműködés számtalan módjával találkozhatunk. Célkitűzéseink között szerepel a jelenlegi gyakorlat felmérése és azoknak az utaknak a megtalálása, amely a szülőket és a pedagógusokat hozzásegítik ahhoz, hogy a gyermekek szükségleteihez jobban igazodva eredményesebbé tegyék bevonódásukat.

A kutatás a következő kérdésköröket érintette:

  • a szülők és a gyermekek aktív részvételét lehetővé tevő atmoszféra megteremtése,
  • a gyermekek otthoni és bölcsődei tapasztalatai közötti összefüggéshiány jellemzői és okai,
  • a pedagógusok, a szülők és a gyermekek közötti interakciók minősége,
  • a gyermekszemlélet jellemzői.

Az óvodai projekt:

Az óvodai projekt témája a bontakozó literáció: elsősorban a meséknek és a képeskönyveknek a gyermek fejlődésében játszott szerepe (a családban és az óvodában). Célkitűzéseink között szerepel az óvodai nevelés erősségeinek és gyengeségeinek a feltárása a literációs fejlődés támogatása terén, továbbá olyan módszertani programok kidolgozása a kisgyermeknevelők és az óvodapedagógusok számára, melyek a) elősegítik a gyermekek literációs fejlődésének támogatásához szükséges szakmai kompetenciáik erősödését, továbbá b) felkészítik őket a szülők literációs fejlődést támogató kompetenciáinak erősítésére.

A kutatás kérdései a következőkre irányultak:

  • Az otthoni mesélési szokások jellemzői és ezek változásai;
  • A gyermekek meséhez, képeskönyvhöz való viszonyának jellemzői a bölcsődében és az óvodában;
  • A szülői bevonódás támogatása az együttműködés, közös gondolkodás a szülőkkel a mesélés vonatkozásában;
  • A mesélés helye, szerepe a nevelők munkájában.

Elemzési keretek

A nevelés központi fogalom a kisgyermekekkel való tevékenységekben Magyarországon. Ez egy holisztikus fogalom, melynek jelentésébe nem csupán a gondozás és a tanítás tartozik, hanem mindazon képességeknek a fejlesztése is, melyek az élethez szükségesek (egészséges életmódra nevelés, viselkedés, szociális készségek, stb.). Ennek következtében a fogalom rokon vonásokat mutat a „szociálpedagógia” fogalmával (abban az értelemben, ahogyan ez utóbbit Dániában vagy Németországban értelmezik), vagy a „lehető legtágabb értelemben vett tanítás” fogalmával (Source: Kaga, Bennett, Moss: Caring and Learning Together, UNESCO, 2010). A nevelés fogalma kifejezi a gondozás és a nevelés egymástól való elválaszthatatlanságát is. Gondozás közben direkt vagy indirekt módon nevelést is végzünk, és fordítva. Más szavakkal: ez a pedagógia. Mind a bölcsődék, mind az óvodák országos hatáskörű útmutatói erre a fogalomértelmezésre épülnek, és ez összefüggésben van a kooperáció, az interakció, a részvétel és a demokrácia értelmezésével. Következésképpen mind a bölcsődei, mind az óvodai projekt értelmezési keretei a következők:

  • jogszabályok
  • országos hatáskörű útmutatók, előírások és a bölcsődék és óvodák helyi nevelési programjai
  • a részvétel és a bevonódás alapelveit rögzítő útmutatók
  • Shier modellje a gyermeki részvételt és döntéshozatalt illetően.

Módszerek

Dokumentumelemzés, ezen belül:

  • az országos hatáskörű dokumentumok elemzése
  • helyi pedagógiai programok elemzése

Fókuszcsoportos interjúk

Szükségletelemzés, szükséglettérképek, sikerek és nehézségek a bölcsődei beszoktatás és az óvodai literációs fejlődés támogatása helyzeteiben (mindhárom résztvevőre: pedagógusra, szülőre, gyermekre vonatkozóan).

SIGNALS curriculum

In accordance with the aims of the SIGNALS project, the Hungarian studies wish to support democratic participation and consideration of the perspectives of children. Accordingly, “the overarching goal is to enable parents and professionals to find a joint approach to child development and learning, and to improve the quality of the pedagogical relationship between educational staff and children,” as laid down in the project’s proposal.

The National Curriculum frameworks and the local pedagogical programmes – which set out the requirements for working with parents and children – have been used as the basis for both the childcare and the kindergarten curriculum. A childcare centre with a good practice of engaging parents has been selected and their documents/descriptions of the settling in process and cooperation with parents have also been taken into account.

SIGNALS Curriculum

A SIGNALS projekt célkitűzéseivel összhangban a magyar kutatások támogatni kívánják a demokratikus részvételt/bevonódást és a gyermekek nézőpontjának figyelembevételét. Ennek megfelelően a legfontosabb cél a szülők és a szakemberek képessé tétele a gyermek fejlődésével és tanulásával kapcsolatos közös alapokon álló megközelítések megtalálására, továbbá a pedagógusok és a gyermekek közötti kapcsolat minőségének jobbítása, ahogyan az a projekt indítványában is szerepel.

Az országos hatáskörű útmutatókat és a helyi pedagógiai programokat – melyek tartalmazzák a szülőkkel és a gyermekekkel való együttműködés követelményeit − mint a bölcsődei és az óvodai nevelés alapdokumentumait használtuk. A szülőkkel való együttműködés terén jó gyakorlatot folytató bölcsődét választottunk, és munkánk során figyelembe vettük az intézménynek azokat a dokumentumait, leírásait, melyek a szülőkkel a beszoktatás folyamán megvalósuló együttműködés jó gyakorlatát írták le.

Internal Evaluation

Internal evaluation is based on a qualitative approach, whereby parents, staff and children respond to questions about what they think participation in preschool means for children and for parents.

Belső értékelés

A belső értékelés kvalitatív jellegű: a szülőket, a pedagógusokat és a gyermekeket arról kérdeztük, hogy mit gondolnak a gyermekek és a szülők bevonódásáról?

Implementation

The SIGNALS activities in Hungary are connected to children’s settling in, joint events and daily meetings in the participating childcare centre as part of a complex system of working with parents throughout the year. The activities in the kindergarten are connected to emerging literacy. The research on which the kindergarten programme is based focuses partly on mapping childcare- and kindergarten pedagogues’ opinions of children’s attitudes to tales, story books and the media and of factors influencing these as well as of their own roles, opportunities and co-operation with parents.

The expected results are related to:

  • Identification of weaknesses and strengths of current childcare practice in terms of involving children and parents (i.e. participation) and of current kindergarten practice in the field of emergent literacy.
  • Identification of needs met and needs not met for all agents in the situations studied (children, parents and staff)
  • Identification of competencies needed to redress situations where needs are not met or could be improved
  • Matrix to inform training-module development

Methods

Questionnaires
Focus group discussions
Observations / diaries from the settling in period
Semi-structured individual interviews
Photos

Megvalósítás, gyakorlati hasznosítás

Magyarországon a SIGNALS keretében végzett tevékenységek a bölcsődei beszoktatáshoz kapcsolódnak, a projektben részt vevő bölcsődében a szülőkkel való mindennapi találkozások a szülőkkel való egész éves együttműködés komplex rendszerének részét képezik. Az óvodai nevelés területén végzett projekttevékenységek a bontakozó literációhoz kapcsolódtak. Az óvodai program keretében zajló kutatás részben a kisgyermeknevelőknek és az óvodapedagógusoknak a gyermekek meséhez, képeskönyvhöz, médiához való viszonyával kapcsolatos véleményének feltárására irányult, részben pedig az ezt a viszonyt befolyásoló tényezők közül a pedagógusok saját szerepéről és a szülők mesélési szokásairól alkotott véleményét vizsgálta.

Várható eredmények:

  • A gyermekek és a szülők bevonódásával (részvételével) kapcsolatos erősségek és gyengeségek azonosítása napjaink bölcsődei nevelésének gyakorlatában, valamint az óvodai nevelésben a bontakozó literáció vonatkozásában,
  • Az igények teljesülése és nem teljesülése az egyes helyzetekben valamennyi szereplő (a gyermekek, a szülők és a pedagógusok) szemszögéből vizsgálva,
  • Kompetenciák meghatározása, amelyek azon helyzetek kezeléséhez szükségesek, ahol az igényeket nem veszik figyelembe, vagy amelyek javításra szorulnak.
  • A tervezett fejlesztő tréning-programjának mátrixa.

Módszerek

Kérdőívek
Fókuszcsoportos interjúk
Megfigyelések /a beszoktatás időszakában vezetett fejlődési naplók
Részben strukturált egyéni interjúk
Fotók

Exploitation/Practical Application

The results of the research is to be used to update the National Curriculum Guidance for childcare centres and for kindergartens with the better defined concepts of participation, cooperation, interaction and democratic approach to implement and to improve engaging parents and children in activity-oriented interactions.

Alkalmazás / gyakorlati relevancia

A kutatás eredményei felhasználhatók a bölcsődei és az óvodai nevelés országos hatáskörű dokumentumainak fejlesztésében a részvétel, az együttműködés, az interakció fogalmának pontosabb definiálása, és a demokratikus szemléletmód megvalósítása és jobbítása érdekében a szülőkkel és a gyermekekkel való aktivitás-orientált interakciókban.

Dissemination and Sustainability

The results of the project are disseminated at conferences organized for practitioners working in ECEC centres, teacher trainers and people responsible for policy development in national and local level in order to sensitize them about the issues of democratic participation of parents and children.

Guidelines for ECEC centres related to settling in and emergent literacy are to be developed as national guidance to be applied in local curriculums. The guidelines are to be distributed through regular national dissemination channels.

Disszemináció és fenntarthatóság

A projekt eredményeit a kisgyermekeket nevelő intézmények munkatársai, a szakemberek képzésében oktatók és a felelős politikai döntéshozók számára szervezett országos és helyi konferenciákon mutatjuk be, azzal a céllal, hogy növeljük érzékenységüket a szülők és a gyermekek demokratikus részvétele iránt.

Országos hatáskörű – a helyi pedagógiai programokba is beépítendő − irányelvek kidolgozása a kisgyermeket nevelő intézmények számára a beszoktatás és a bontakozó literáció támogatása területén. Az irányelveket a szokásos hazai disszeminációs csatornákon tesszük közzé.

Formation of the National Team/s

The Romanian research team is led by HoltIS a national non-governmental organization. The team aims to create a favorable framework to the protection and promotion of children’s rights by improving parental skills, through creating an institutional background for improving child participation and positive approach of child behavior and through researching the impact of training program for staff and parenting program for school culture and practices.

HoltIS has the following tasks:

  • organization and coordination of the Romanian research team;
  • academic analysis of the participation processes involving staff, parents and children;
  • rovision of technical advice, coaching and training of the kindergarten’s teaching staff;
  • organization and management of the participatory processes involving staff, parents, children and host organizations (management of joint courses on parental education and other activities).
Echipa națională de cercetare

Echipa de cercetare din România este condusă de HoltIS, o organizație națională non-guvernamentală. Scopul echipei este acela de a crea un cadru favorabil pentru protecția și promovarea drepturilor copilului, prin îmbunătățirea abilităților parentale, prin crearea unui cadru instituțional de îmbunătățire a participării copilului și abordării pozitive a comportamenului copilului și prin evaluarea impactului programului de formare-informare a cadrelor didactice privind cultura școlară și practicile folosite.

HoltIS are ca obiective următoarele:

  • organizarea și coordonarea echipei de cercetare;
  • analiza academică al procesului de participare implicând cadrele didactice, părinții și copiii;
  • asigurarea de sfaturi tehnice, coaching și cursuri cadrelor didactice din grădinițe;
  • organizarea și conducerea proceselor participative implicând cadrele didactice, părinții, copiii și organizațiile gazdă (administrarea cursurilor de educație parentală și alte activități).
Needs Analysis

The aim of the study is to investigate the character, values, potentials and challenges of parent participation in Romanian preschool settings.

Problem statement and research questions
How to improve the participation in public kindergartens in Romania, for children 0-6 years to improve the context of learning and childcare?

  • What are the institutional prescriptions that encourage the participation of parents and their involvement in collaboration with professionals of the kindergarten?
  • What are the roles and responsibilities of parents perceived by them in terms of collaboration with professionals from preschool?
  • How professionals perceive their roles in working with parents?
  • What are the challenges of collaboration between parents and professionals in preschool?
  • How is described by professionals and parents the family and institutional roles in relation to the education and care of children?

Analytical framework
Results will be analyzed in terms of participation, interaction, learning, play, care and collaboration. We have developed an analytical model in order to understand the mechanisms that may lead to greater collaboration between professionals and parents.

Methodology
The study is conducted as an action research study focused on appreciative perspective. By using appreciative inquiry (AI) will be set in a context of reflection for professionals and parents on practices in preschool. The application of AI technology is a form of reconstruction practices and what underlies theory, by reconfiguring language.

The research data will be generated through the use of the following methods:

1. Document analysis of policies
Relevant documents and policies (national curriculum, local curricula and guidelines etc.) will be gathered and analyzed.

2. Interviews: parents and preschool professionals
Data collection will be used comprehensive interview, applied preschools parents and professionals. Relevant thematic axes will be drawn to the concepts of interaction, participation, collaboration, care, education and play. Participants will be selected in a theoretical sample to satisfy diversity as wide.

3. Documentation provided by participants
To capture the perspectives of parents and professionals will be used for video, photos, drawings. Some of activities to be carried along will be filmed and will be used Video Interaction technology, which will be used as a context for reflection, analysis, and interaction.

4. Observations
Researchers will attend meetings of professionals and parents to be able to capture elements of culture in parent participation preschool. For this observation guides will be developed that will be used for rigorous monitoring indicators established after the analysis of interviews.

Analiza nevoilor

Scopul studiului este de a identifica valorilor, potențialurile și provocările participării parentale în mediul preșcolar din România.

Declararea problemei și întrebările cercetării

  • Cum să încurajăm participarea în grădinițele publice din România, pentru copiii între 0-6 ani prin îmbunătățirea contextului de învățare și îngrijire a copilului?
  • Care sunt prescripțiile instituționale care încurajează participarea părinților și implicarea lor în colaborarea cu profesioniștii din grădinițe?
  • Care sunt rolurile și responsabilitățile părinților percepute de ei în termeni de colaborare cu profesioniștii din mediul preșcolar?
  • Cum percep profesioniștii propriile roluri în colaborarea cu părinții?
  • Care sunt provocările colaborării între părinți și profesioniștii din mediul preșcolar?
  • Cum este descris de profesioniști și părinți, familia și rolurile instituționale în relația cu educația și îngrijirea copiilor?

Cadrul analitic
Rezultatele vor fi analizate în termeni de participare, interacțiune, învățare, joc, îngrijire și colaborare. Astfel, am dezvoltat un model analitic în așa fel încât să înțelegem mecanismele care ar putea duce la colaborări mai importante între profesioniști și părinți.

Metodologie
Studiul are la bază strategia intervenție-cercetare concentrat pe perspective apreciative. Prin folosirea anchetei apreciative (AA) va fi setat un context de reflecție a cadrelor didactice și a părinților privind practicile din mediul preșcolar. Aplicarea abordării AA este o formă de practici reconstruite și care evidențiază teoria prin reconfigurarea limbajului.

Datele cercetării vor fi generate prin folosirea următoarelor metode:

1. Documentul analizării politicilor
Documentele relevante și politicile (curriculum național, curriculum local și instrucțiuni etc.) vor fi adunate și analizate.

2. Interviuri: părinți și profesioniști din mediul preșcolar

În colectarea datelor vor fi folosite interviuri comprehensive, preluate părinților preșcolari și profesioniștilor. Axele tematice relevante vor fi trasate conceptelor de interacțiune, participare, colaborare, îngrijire, educație și joc. Participanții vor fi selectați printr-o probă teoretică pentru a satisface diversitatea cât mai largă.

3. Documentarea asigurată de participanți
Pentru a captura perspectivele părinților și profesioniștilor vor fi folosite filmările video, fotografiile, desenele. Câteva din activități pentru a fi desfășurate vor fi filmate și astfel va fi folosită tehnologia interacțiunii video, care va fi folosită într-un context de reflecție, analiză și interacțiune.

4. Observații
Cercetătorii vor asista la întâlniri ale profesioniștilor și părinților pentru a fi capabili să suprindă elemente de cultură privind participarea parentală din mediul preșcolar. Pentru această observație, vor fi dezvoltate ghiduri care vor fi utile pentru monitorizarea riguroasă a indicatorilor stabiliți după analizarea interviurilor.

SIGNALS curriculum

The Romanian project aims to develop an institutional background that is designed to improve child participation and positive approach of child behavior based on 2 directions: developing materials for staff and training the staff. On the first direction we created a guide for parental educators for providing courses for Roma parents, and also two sessions with around 10 teachers from each kindergarten.

SIGNALS Curriculum

Proiectul din România dorește să dezvolte un cadru instituțional care este conceput să îmbunătățească participarea copilului și abordarea pozitivă a comportamenului copilului bazat pe două direcții: crearea de materiale pentru cadrele didactice și formarea lor. Pe prima direcție am creat un ghid pentru educatorii parentali, astfel încât să susțină cursuri de educație parentală pentru părinții rromi, și de asemenea două sesiuni cu 10 cadre didactice din fiecare grădiniță.

Internal Evaluation

The internal evaluation of the Romanian project follows the next levels:

We are looking to identify ways in which staff and parents define the participation of children and parents in kindergarten. The construction ways of participation can contribute significantly to defining institutional practices and school culture. Thus, we consider evaluation culture school levels (Zhu, Devos & Tondeur, 2014: 560) that of ideology (values, ways of thinking, practices) in the behaviors (behaviors, codes of ethics, practices, habits) and the material conditions (classroom settings, physical environment etc.). Considering these factors, we try to identify aspects of the participation of children and parents and school culture from the perspective of institutional practices.

First we chose a design that we used qualitative interviews as data collection method. Subjects participants are: 1 manager, 2 staff and parents participated at three interviews in Romania. This approach is one Exploratory, following that during the project to be included several and kindergartens in this evaluation.

Evaluarea Internă

Evaluarea Internă a proiectului din România are în vedere următorii pași:

Identificarea modalităților prin care cadrele didactice și părinții definesc participarea copiilor și părinților în grădinițe; construirea modalităților prin care participarea poate contribui semnificativ la definirea practicilor instituționale și a culturii școlare. Astfel, am considerat evaluarea culturii școlare pe nivele (Zhu, Devos & Tondeur, 2014: 560) de ideologie (valori, moduri de gândire, practici), comportamente (coduri de etică, practici, obiceiuri) și condiții materiale (cadrul claselor, mediul fizic etc). Luând în considerare acești factori, încercăm să identificăm aspecte ale participării copiilor și părinților și a culturii școlare din perspectiva practicilor instituționale.

Ca tehnici de culegere a datelor am ales cercetarea calitativă prin organizarea de interviuri individuale. Participanții sunt: 1 manager, două cadre didactice și părinți participanți la trei interviuri în România. Această abordare este una exploratorie, urmând ca pe parcursul proiectului să fie incluse alte grădinițe în evaluare.

Implementation

The Romanian Project has been designed as a project of applied “action-research”. This concept focuses on specific practical problems in order to enable direct social action. We developed a cooperation between parents, children and staff to boost participation in setting school children; achievement with teachers the Guide about children participation, which was disseminated in 13 rural kindergartens with Roma children, which are: (1) Berevoiesti (Arges County); (2) Plopeni Sat (Prahova County); (3) Cosula (Botosani County); (4) Bacesti (Vaslui County); (5) Sarulesti (Calarasi County), (6) Tandarei (Ialomita County); (7) Horgesti (Bacau County); (8) Poiana (Dambovita County); (9) Crivina (Giugiu County); (10) Romanesti (Dambovita County); (11) Savinesti (Neamt County); (12) Zmau (Iasi County); (13) Veresti (Suceava County).

For a positive approach to child behavior we had discussions with teachers and parents for details about the methods and techniques for positive approach of child behavior, which were be useful for elaborating the guide children in school participation, which will be disseminated in the kindergartens expressed above.

Implementare

Proiectul din România are la bază strategia intervenție-cercetare. Această strategie se focusează pe probleme specifice în scopul de a emite o acțiune socială directă. În acest sens, am dezvoltat o colaborare între părinți, copii și cadre didactice pentru a încuraja participarea școlară a copiilor; ghidul privind participarea copiilor a fost realizat împreună cu cadrele didactice și a fost diseminat în 13 grădinițe din mediul rural: : (1) Berevoiesti (Județul Argeș); (2) Plopeni Sat (Județul Prahova); (3) Cosula (Județul Botosani); (4) Bacesti (Județul Vaslui); (5) Sarulesti (Județul Calarasi), (6) Tandarei (Județul Ialomita ); (7) Horgesti (Județul Bacău); (8) Poiana (Județul Dâmbovița); (9) Crivina (Județul Giugiu); (10) Romanesti (Județul Dambovita); (11) Savinesti (Județul Neamt); (12) Zmau (Județul Iasi); (13) Veresti (Județul Suceava).

În ceea ce privește abordarea pozitivă a comportamentelor copiilor, am avut discuții cu profesorii și părinții pentru detalierea metodelor și tehnicilor pentru abordarea pozitivă a comportamentului copilului, discuții care au fost utile pentru elaborarea ghidului, ghid care de asemenea va fi diseminat în fiecare grădiniță menționată anterior.

Exploitation/Practical Application

The strategy used is primarily designed to cause actual changes or to develop solutions for specific problems in the targeted environments. The curriculum that was developed and implemented is a support for pre-school educational institutions, to improve school attendance, child and parent participation. In each kindergarten, the parental educator trained and accredited by HoltIS, is sustaining one parental education course (in 8 sessions, with the main themes: stress management, efficient communication, the importance of playing in childhood, relationship parent-child, caring the pre-school child, the positive discipline of the child), and also 2 sessions with 10 teachers, achieving those two important subjects: positive approach of child’s behavior and child participation.

Exploatare/ Aplicație Practică

Strategia folosită are drept scop producerea de schimbare sau dezvoltarea de soluții pentru problemele specifice în mediile vizate. Curriculum care a fost dezvoltat și implementat este un suport pentru grădinițe, având drept rol îmbunătățirea participării școlare a copiilor și a părinților. În fiecare grădiniță, educatorul parental acreditat de HoltIS susține un curs de educație parentală (curs format din 8 sesiuni cu următoarele teme principale: managementul stresului, comunicarea eficientă, importanța jocului în copilărie, relația dintre părinte-copil, îngrijirea preșcolarului, disciplinarea pozitivă a copilului), și de asemenea două sesiuni cu 10 cadre didactice, atingând două subiecte: abordarea pozitivă a comportamentelor copiilor și participarea copilului.

Dissemination and Sustainability

The project was implemented as a pilot project for developing key-persons in different rural communities. The sustainability is given by the parental educators, who are resources in their communities. The accreditation is valid for a certain period of time and in order for them to continue as trainers they should sustain other courses with parents periodically.

Diseminare și Sustenabilitate

Proiectul pilot implementat a fost dezvoltat pentru a crea persoane cheie resursă in diferite comunități rurale. Sustenabilitatea proiectului este dată de educatorii parentali, care sunt persoane resursă în comunitatea lor. Acreditarea primită din partea HoltIS este valabilă pentru o anumită perioadă de timp, iar pentru revalidarea acreditării, educatorii parentali vor susține periodic cursuri de educație parentală cu părinții.

Literature

Presentations:

1. International Conference Rethinking Social Action. Core Values, Iasi, 16-19 April, 2015. Presentation: Stefan Cojocaru, Alexandra Galbin: Creating a Culture of Participation in Kindergarten Based on Constructionist Approach.

2. Motivational Conference about “The Importance of Parental Education”, 20 May 2015 in the International Festival of Education (FIE 2015).

3. International Conference TCA 2014, November 21-22, 2014 - Targoviste (Romania), Presentation: Stefan Cojocaru, Child and parent participation in kindergarten culture.

Publication:
Cojocaru, S. (2014). Child and parent participation in kindergarten culture. In Transdisciplinarity and Communicative Action, Medimond, ISI Proceeding, pp. 207-211.
Cojocaru, S., Galbin, A. (2015). Creating a Culture of Participation in Kindergarten Based on Constructionist Approach, in conference volume Rethinking Social Action, Medimond.

Literatură

Prezentări:

1. Conferința Internațională Rethinking Social Action. Core Values, Iasi, 16-19 April, 2015. Prezentare: Stefan Cojocaru, Alexandra Galbin: Creating a Culture of Participation in Kindergarten Based on Constructionist Approach.

2. Conferința Motivațională despre Importanța Educației Parentale, 20 mai 2015 în cadrul Festivalului Internațional al Educației (FIE 2015).

3. Conferința Internațională TCA 2014, 21-22 noiembrie 2014- Târgoviște (Romania), cu prezentarea Stefan Cojocaru, Child and parent participation in kindergarten culture.

Publicații:
Cojocaru, S. (2014). Child and parent participation in kindergarten culture. In Transdisciplinarity and Communicative Action, Medimond, ISI Proceeding, pp. 207-211.
Cojocaru, S., Galbin, A. (2015). Creating a culture of Participation in Kindergarten Based on Constructionist Approach, in volumul conferinței Rethinking Social Action, Medimond.

Formation of the National Team/s

The Swedish research team is led by the Department of education, communication and learning at the University of Gothenburg (Anne Kultti, Ingrid Pramling Samuelsson). The cooperation is with teacher education and two community preschools – their staff, teachers and children.

Det nationella teamet

Det svenska teamet leds från Institutionen för pedagogik, kommunikation och lärande vid Göteborgs universitet (Anne Kultti, Ingrid Pramling Samuelsson). Samverkan sker med förskollärarutbildningen och två kommunala förskolor – deras personal, (förskollärare och barnskötare), föräldrar och barn.

Needs Analysis

The overall aim is to gain knowledge of how preschool professionals and parents with different cultural backgrounds talk about, reflect on and develop their own and the children’s participation in preschool.

Research questions:

  • How do professionals invite parents to cooperate with them in order to promote the children’s participation and learning (and if so, how is this changed)?
  • How can parents and professionals find a joint approach to participation and involvement in the setting in order to promote the children’s learning?
  • How can collaboration between parents and professionals support democratic participation, incorporating the perspectives of multilingual parents and children? What role does the leadership play for these processes?

The theoretical base for our work is, education for social and cultural sustainability. Part of this perspective is viewing children as agents in their own learning. A holistic approach including relations between children’s home environment and expectations of children and their behaviour and development in preschool (Fleer & Hedegaard, 2010).

Analys

Det övergripande målet för studien är att få kunskap om hur förskolepersonal och föräldrar med olika språkliga bakgrund talar om, reflektera över och utveckla sin egen och barnens deltagande i förskolan.

Forskningsfrågor att studera är:

  • Hur förskolans personal inbjuder föräldrar till att samarbeta med dem för att främja barns deltagande och lärande (och i så fall hur detta ändras)?
  • Hur kan föräldrar och personal gemensam finna strategier för deltagande och engagemang i för att främja barns lärande?
  • Hur kan samarbetet mellan föräldrar och personal stödja demokratiskt deltagande? Vilken roll spelar ledarskap för dessa processer?

Den teoretiska grunden för vårt arbete är lärande för social och kulturell hållbarhet. En del av detta perspektiv omfattas av att se barn som aktiva i sitt eget lärande. En helhetssyn är viktig där relationerna mellan barns hemmiljö och förväntningar hemifrån och deras agerande och utveckling i förskolan (Fleer & Hedegaard, 2010).

SIGNALS curriculum

We selected preschool teachers with multicultural experiences, children and parents in two preschools with a majority of children with other mother-tongue than Swedish. The preschool were both earlier involved in competence development in the area of multicultural questions. The on-going developmental work was expressed as: “Foundational values in dialogue– with children in focus”. The aims was to developing methods for implementing process-oriented work on norms and values through; good cooperation with parents, a positive identity development of children, and a common view on values, based on international and national policy documents.

Signals läroplan

I studien deltar förskollärare, barn och föräldrar i två förskolor med en majoritet av barn med annat modersmål än svenska. Förskolorna har tidigare varit involverade i kompetensutveckling om mångkulturella frågor.

Implementation

The main characters of our work in SIGNALS are:

  • an empirical starting point,
  • implementation carried out in close participation between the researchers and the professionals,
  • both as a developmental project and a research project.

The study begun with: Professionals within an in-service course about multilingualism and interculturalism in preschool. Where after the professionals’ reflection on participation and collaboration (Shier, 2001) during transition period were studied.

Specifically we worked with focussing on two aspects:

  • observation as a tool for gaining knowledge and collaborating of children and of parents involvement in the practice (rather than merely being informed about the practice) during the transitions period,
  • reflection on routine activities from the perspectives of professionals, parents and children.
Implementierung

Huvudkarakteristiken i vårt arbete är:

  • en empirisk utgångspunkt,
  • genomförande i nära deltagande mellan forskare och yrkesverksamma, och
  • ett utvecklings- och forskningsprojekt.

Studien inleddes med en enkät till verksamma förskollärare i en kurs om flerspråkighet och interkulturella perspektiv i förskolan. Enkäten handlade om deras reflektion på delaktighet och samarbete genom inskolningsperioden.

Enkäten ledde till att uppmärksamma följande:

  • Observation som ett verktyg för kunskap om förskolan och underlag för samarbete under inskolningsperioden,
  • Reflektion över verksamheten från personalens, föräldrars och barns perspektiv.
Exploitation/Practical Application

The design of our study is based on:

  1. Questionnare about participation, influence, collaboration, transition period to preschool.
  2. Case study/observation,
  3. Developmental work.

Data we have collected in the preschools

  1. Observations of teacher-parent meetings.
  2. Observation of welcome-to-school and follow up talks.
  3. Observations during children’s first day in the setting.
  4. Focus-group conversations about collaboration and language learning, based on literature
    • within the preschool, 3-6 participants on two occasion.
    • between the preschools, 6 participants on one occasion.

We have had continuous ethical considerations, and made translation of documents. We early discovered many sensitive issues.

Tillämpning

Designen av vår studie är baserad på:

  1. Frågeformulär om delaktighet, inflytande, samarbete, och inskolningsperiod i förskolan (se ovan).
  2. Fallstudie / observation,
  3. Utvecklingsarbete.
    1. Samarbete: flytta fokus i samverkan från information till dialog.
    2. Barns perspektiv på språkanvändning i och utanför förskolan.
    3. Litteraturanalys och tvåspråkig läsaktivitet.
    4. Utveckling av organisationen: baserat på individuella uppgifter / aktiviteter ovan.

Empiriska data producerat inom studien:

  1. Observation av formella och informella möten mellan föräldrar och lärare inom ramen för inskolning.
  2. Observation av inskolning (tre dagars vistelse i förskolan).
  3. Fokusgruppsamtal om samarbete och språklärande, som grundar sig på litteratur
    • inom varje förskola, 3-6 deltagare, vid två tillfällen.
    • mellan förskolor, 6 deltagare, vid ett tillfälle.
  4. Texter utifrån uppgifterna (se ovan).
Dissemination and Sustainability

The developmental work:

  1. Collaboration: focus on moving from information to dialogue. A talk with a parent of different topics and a reflection.
  2. Children’s perspectives to language use in and outside preschool: in a playful activity, talk with children of their experiences of using the languages. Reflection.
  3. Literature analysis and bilingual reading activity: analysing the books used in the own practice from a perspective of second language learners, language learning also. Reflection
  4. Development of organisation (preschool setting): based on the individual tasks/activities, the group of teacher in a preschool reflect the own setting, activities aso, what have been done and how they will develop the setting/activities.

Presentations in form of lectures:

  • In-service courses: multilingual issues, parent-teacher-child focus
  • Preschool teacher program at University of Gothenburg: multilingual issues, preschool-home cooperation
  • Municipality: multilingual issues, preschool-home cooperation
  • Region: multilingual issues, parents, learning-health

Publications:

  • Kultti, A. (ms.). Book reading and dual language narrative elaboration in preschool. To appear in Garvis, S., & Pramling, N. (Eds.) Exploring Lived Experiences: Narratives and Early Childhood. Routledge.
  • Kultti, A., & Pramling Samuelsson, I. (ms). Investing in home-preschool collaboration for understanding social worlds of multilingual children. Submitted to Journal of Early Childhood Education Research
  • Kultti, A., & Pramling Samuelsson, I. (ms). Changing patterns of communication for the facilitation of inclusion, collaboration and democracy. Hellman, A., & Lauritsen, K. (Eds). Clear Rationale Nordic perspectives on diversity and social justice in early childhood education. Nordic Studies on diversity and education. Cambridge.
Spridning och hållbarhet

Presentationer i form av föreläsningar:

  • I fortbildningskurser: flerspråkiga frågor, föräldrar, lärare och barn fokus
  • Förskollärarutbildningen vid Göteborgs universitet: språkiga frågor, samarbetet mellan hem och förskola
  • Kommun: språkiga frågor, samarbete förskola-hem
  • Region: språkiga frågor, föräldrar, lärande-hälsa

Publikationer:

  • Kultti, A. (ms.). Book reading and dual language narrative elaboration in preschool. To appear in Garvis, S., & Pramling, N. (Eds.) Exploring Lived Experiences: Narratives and Early Childhood. Routledge.
  • Kultti, A., & Pramling Samuelsson, I. (ms). Investing in home-preschool collaboration for understanding social worlds of multilingual children. Submitted to Journal of Early Childhood Education Research
  • Kultti, A., & Pramling Samuelsson, I. (ms). Changing patterns of communication for the facilitation of inclusion, collaboration and democracy. Hellman, A., & Lauritsen, K. (Eds). Clear Rationale Nordic perspectives on diversity and social justice in early childhood education. Nordic Studies on diversity and education. Cambridge.
Formation of the National Team/s

The Icelandic research team is led by the School of Education within the University of Iceland (Jóhanna Einarsdóttir, Arna H. Jónsdóttir, Lena Sólborg Valgarðsdóttir), and the Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education is participating in the research project. One preschool in Reykjavík – their educators, parents and children participate.

Íslenski rannsóknarhópurinn

Rannsóknarhópurinn er staðsettur á Menntavísindasviði Háskóla Íslands (Jóhanna Einarsdóttir, Arna H. Jónsdóttir, Lena Sólborg Valgarðsdóttir) og tekur Rannsóknarstofa í menntunarfræðum ungra barna (RannUng) þátt í verkefninu. Einn leikskóli í Reykjavík, starfsfólk, börn og foreldrar þeirra taka þátt.

Needs Analysis

The overall aim is to strengthen cooperation between preschool and compulsory schools in one neighborhood in Reykjavík with the focus on children‘s learning and well-being when they transfer from one school level to another. When children, parents and preschool teachers were asked about the value of such project they all agreed that is was necessary and worthy, as the cooperation with the compulsory school had to be strengthened. The emphasis of the project was to build on the children‘s perspectives and ideas and parents and that the preschool teachers would support them on their learning journeys.

The theoretical base: The project is based on the Icelandic Acts on Preschool and the Act on compulsory schools which stress the necessity of cooperation about the children‘s learning and wellbeing. Further the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Greining á þörf fyrir verkefnið

Markmið verkefnisins er að efla samstarf leikskóla og grunnskóla í einu hverfi í Reykjavík um nám og líðan barna á mótum skólastiga og auðvelda þeim ferðalagið af einu skólastigi á annað. Þegar börn, foreldar og leikskólakennarar voru spurðir um gildi verkefnisins sögðu þeir að mikil þörf væri fyrir slíkt verkefni þar sem samstarfið gæti verið mun betra. Ákveðið var að hugmyndir og áhugi barnanna myndu ráð för í verkefninu og leikskólakennarar og foreldrar styðja og styrkja börnin í þekkingarleit sinni um þá breytingu sem framundan var.

Fræðilegur bakgrunnur: Verkefnið byggir á Lögum um leikskóla (2008) og Lög um grunnskóla (2008) um mikilvægi árangursríks samstarfs á mótum skólastiga. Jafnframt Sáttmála Sameinuðu þjóðanna um réttindi barnsins.

SIGNALS curriculum

We chose a preschool that had been focusing on and emphasizing cooperation with parents for several years and among other things carried out a project on democracy in the preschool. Thus, the experience of cooperation was in place and the learning journeys of the children in the transition period could therefore begin rather early in the process. An action research was carried out in the preschool. During the action research period the educators and the parents encouraged the children to ask questions. The project aimed at the following; strengthening the children‘s identity, their active participation, cooperation of educators and parents, well-being of the children, and the learning of all actors.

Áherslur í SIGNALS verkefninu

Sá leikskóli sem var valinn hefur unnið markvisst að samstarfi við foreldra, m.a. með verkefni um lýðræði í leikskólanum. Reynslan af samstarfi við foreldra var því til staðar og möguleiki var því á því að börnin hæfust fljótlega handa við að setja fram tillögur og hugmyndir um samstarf við grunnskólana. Leikskólakennarar og foreldrar studdu börnin í að spyrja spurninga sem styrkti sjálfsmynd þeirra og þátttöku í verkefninu, samstarf foreldra og leikskólakennara efldist um þennan þátt sérstaklega og allir lærðu í ferlinu.

Implementation

Before the implementation of the project began, policy analysis was conducted with the following questions in mind:

  • How is cooperation and participation of staff, children and parents discussed in policy documents?
  • What information does research in early childhood education in Iceland give us?

Following the policy analysis the project was developed. The project has three main parts:

  1. Action research is carried out in one preschool.
    The focus is on transition between the school levels and cooperation of staff, children, and parents. The aim is to make the transition phase in children’s lives as positive and educating as possible and create continuity between the two school levels. The emphasis is on well-being, participation, interaction, and learning.
    In the beginning a need analysis was carried out in the preschool based on interviews with parents, children, and educators. The project Cooperation of children, parents and educators on transition between school levels was then developed. In the end of the implementation process interviews were again carried out with all parties.
  2. Additionally, interviews were carried out with parents in three preschools with the focus on cooperation during the period of transition to school. Groups of stakeholders will then discuss the findings, among others university teachers, preschool counselors, and preschool teachers.
  3. Guidelines for courses based on the experience from the project will be developed.
    When groups of stakeholders have discussed the findings, courses will be developed and taught in the graduate study of preschool teachers.
Framkvæmd verkefnisins

Áður en framkvæmd verkefnisins hófst var gerð greining á opinberri stefnumörkun um samstarf barna, foreldra og starfsfólks og hvað kæmi fram í rannsóknum um efnið. Leitað var svara við eftirfarandi spurningum:

  • Hvað kemur fram í opinberum skjölum og stefnumótun um samstarf og þátttöku starfsfólks, barna og foreldra?
  • Hvað kemur fram í niðurstöðum íslenskra rannsókna um efnið?

Í kjölfar skoðunar á niðurstöðum var verkefnið ákveðið. Verkefnið samanstendur af þremur þáttum:

  1. Starfendarannsókn í einum leikskóla
    Horft er til samstarfs skólastiga með þátttöku starfsfólks, foreldra og barna. Meginmarkmið rannsóknarinnar er að gera ferðalag barnanna frá leikskóla í grunnskóla eins jákvætt og menntandi og kostur er og skapa samfellu skólastiganna. Áhersla er lögð á velferð, þátttöku, samskipti og nám.
    Áður en hafist var handa við framkvæmd verkefnisins í leikskólanum var leitað eftir sjónarmiðum barna, foreldra og starfsfólks með viðtölum. Í kjölfarið var viðfangsefnið valið. Í lok framkvæmdaferilsins voru aftur tekin viðtöl við sömu aðila og verkefnið metið. Niðurstöður má sjá í drögum að bókarkafla um verkefnið.
  2. Auk viðtalanna sem getið er hér að ofan var rætt við foreldra í þremur leikskólum um samstarf almennt og samstarf á mótum skólastiga. Niðurstöður liggja ekki fyrir en þegar þær eru tilbúnar verða þær ræddar í hópum hagsmunaaðila, m.a. meðal háskólakennara, leikskólafulltrúa/ráðgjafa og leikskólakennara.
  3. Þegar hópar hagsmunaaðila hafa rætt niðurstöðurnar verður mótað námskeið byggt á niðurstöðum verkefnisins. Áætlað er að kenna námskeiðið í meistaranámi leikskólakennara.
Exploitation/Practical Application

The findings of the action research have changed how the transition between the school levels is organized in the preschool. Next year the process will follow the findings of the study and the ideas of the children. The parents were more decisive in the end of the project about how they wanted the compulsory school to respond to their and their children’s‘ opinions about activities and structure and it can be expected that they will participate more in their children‘s learning. The teachers felt that this group of children was much more enthusiastic to start in the compulsory school and more secure.

Further, it has been decided that the first graders in the compulsory schools will be in contact with the oldest children in the preschool.

Both the interviews with the parents in the selected preschool, and the three other preschools, as the discussions with the stakeholders, will be of use in organizing the course in the preschool teacher‘s M.Ed. study.

Hagnýting verkefnis

Niðurstöður starfendarannsóknarinnar hafa breytt ferlinu um það hvernig börnin fara á milli leik- og grunnskóla og hvernig staðið er að samstarfinu á milli skólastiganna. Það á meðal annars við um form heimsóknanna í grunnskólann þar sem ákveðið var að farið skyldi að tillögum barnanna um fyrirkomulagið. Foreldrarnir voru jafnframt mun ákveðnari í því hvernig þeir vildu standa að samstarfinu og hvernig grunnskólinn mætti skoðunum barna og foreldra. Hægt er að leiða að því líkur að þeir taki meiri þátt eftir en áður í reynslu og námi barna sinna í grunnskólanum. Leikskólakennarnir töldu að þessi hópur barna væri mun tilbúnari til að takast á við grunnskólaveruna og námið en fyrri hópar.

Auk þess hefur verið ákveðið að fyrsti bekkur grunnskólans hitti og hafi samskipti við elstu börn leikskólans næsta skólaár.

Dissemination and Sustainability

The project will be introduced at Menntakvika, the yearly educational conference within the School of Education, University of Iceland, held October 2nd.

The findings of the action research, interviews with the parents and discussions in the focus groups will be utilized to organize a course on cooperation between children, parents and educators in the preschool teacher M.Ed. study, and will be implemented in the school year 2016-2017.

Articles will be written in journals (or as book chapters) about the findings of the action research, the research with parents and the focus group study. Lena will write her Master’s theses built on the project.

Dreifing niðurstaðna

Verkefnið verður kynnt á Menntakviku, árlegri ráðstefnu Menntavísindasviðs, 2. október.

Niðurstöður starfendarannsóknar, viðtala við fofreldra og rýnihópa hagsmunaaðila verða notaðar til að skipuleggja námskeið í námi leikskólakennaranema í meistaranámi um samstarf barna, foreldra og starfsfólks Stefnt er að því að kenna námskeiðið skólaárið 2016-2017.

Skrifaðar verða greinar (eða bókakaflar) um niðurstöður starfendarannsóknar, viðtala við foreldra og rýnihópa hagsmunaaðila. Lena mun skrifa meistararitgerð sína byggða á verkefninu.